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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语语法:动词  

2008-04-26 11:26:27|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1.动词的时态

    (l)一般现在时态

    1)表示现在的动作或状态。如:

    They are in the classroom. 他们在教室。

    He is an English teacher in a middle school.

    他是一位中学英语老师。

    2)表示现在习惯性的动作。如:

    I usually look through the newspaper after supper. 我一般晚饭后看报纸。

He goes to see his father every week.

    他每周都去看他的父亲。

    3)表示不变的真理或事实。如:

Light travels faster than sound.

    光速比声速快。

    The earth runs around the sun.

    地球绕太阳转。

    4)表示将来

    A.如果主句为将来时态(包括含can的句子和祈使句),时间状语从句、条件状语从句或让步状语从句中的谓语动词用一般时态表示将来。如:

You can do the work better if you are more careful. 如果你再仔细些你会把工作做得更好。

I will tell him everything when I meet him next time.下次碰到他我会把一切都告诉他的。

    B.表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作,句中要有一个表示未来时间的状语。如:

    The train to Guangzhou leaves at seven this evening. 去广州的火车晚上7点开车。

School begins at ten to three in the afternoon after May Day. 五一以后学校下午2∶50上课。

    (2)现在进行时

    1)表示现在或在这一阶段正在进行的动作。如:

    The students are having English class in the classroom.学生们正在教室里上英语课。

    How are you getting along with your study these days?你最近学习怎么样?

    2)一些表示位置移动的动词可用进行时态表将来,这些词常见的有come, go, arrive, reach, leave, move, start, begin, get, stay等。如:

    Where are you staying in Xi’an during your stay there? 去西安时你将住在哪儿?

    I didn’t know he was coming this afternoon.

    我原来不知道他今天下午要来。

    3)与always,often:usually等副词连用表示动作的重复。如:

    You must not be always translating every- thing into your own language when you study a foreign language.当你学外语时,你不能总是把每句话都译成你自己的语言。

    He can often be seen sitting at a desk writing something.经常会看到他坐在桌子旁写东西。

    注意:下列几组词不能用于进行时态:

    A.瞬间动词,如give,get,end,receive,

accept, permit, allow, refuse, decide等。

    B.感官动词,如: see, hear, look, feel,smell,sound, need, remain等。

    C.表情感的动词,如:love,hate,prefer, please, forget, believe, want, mind, agree, wish, mean, need, remember 等

D.表状态的动词,如:stand, lie , seem, appear, exist, remain等。

(3)一般过去式

1)表过去的动作或状态。如:

    The peasants lived poorly at that time.

    那时候农民生活很贫穷。

    Mary left school last year and is now learning Chinese here.

    玛丽去年毕业,现在正在这里学习汉语。

    2)表过去的习惯动作,常与always,often,usually等副词连用。如:

    We usually swam in the river when we were children. 孩童时我们常在河里游泳。

    He often came to my help when I was in trouble. 当我遇到麻烦时他总是来帮助我。

    应该注意,在谈到已死的人的情况时,多用一般过去时态。

    (4)现在完成式

    1)表示过去发生的动作已经结束,但对现在有影响。如:

We have learned 2000 English words by now.

    到现在为止我们已经学了2000个英语单  词。

    He says he has read the book several times already this year.

    他说今年他已把那本书读了好几遍了。

    2)表示过去发生的动作一直延续到现在,或者刚刚结束,或者还将继续下去。如:

    He has been a student for twelve years.

    他当学生已经有12年了。

    We have had no news from her, but we are still hoping. 我们没有得到她的任何消息,但我们还在希望着。

    学习现在完成式应注意:

    A.在有already(用于肯定句中),just(用于肯定句中),yet(用于否定或疑问句中),ever(用于疑问句中)这类副词作状语时,句子常用完成式。

    B.瞬间动词的完成式不能和表示一段时

间的词连用。

    C.瞬间动词,如 come, become,begin,join,

get up,die等不能表示状态,即不能和一个表示一段时间的词连用;如果要表示一个延续的状态,需要用be来表示。

    D.完成式中时间状语的表达方法:

    “for+段时间”,“since+点时间,since+

段时间+ago”,“since+从句(从句谓语用过去

式)”,so far, by far, up till now, by the end of…, before,“in the past/ last+段时间”。

E.“have gone to+地点”表示去了某地,现在不在此地。

“have been to+地点”,表示去过某地,人已经回来。

“have been+介词+地点”,表示来到某地,现在人正在此地。

    F. 由when, if , after, till, as soon as 等引导的从句,以现在完成式代替将来完成式。如:

I will write to you as soon as I have got there.

我一到那儿就给你写信。

Let’s go out after I have finished my homework.. 我做完作业咱们出去。

    G.when引导的疑问句一般不用完成式。如:

    When did you come here?

    你什么时候到这里的?

    When will you do your lessons?

你什么时候做功课,

(5)一般将来时态

    1)to be going to 表示按照安排、计划、打算要做的事情,或有迹象表明将会发生的动作。如:

The old men of this village are going to have an outing. 这个村的老人准备去郊游。

注意:

A,表示去什么地方时,be going to 后面的go不能再出现;即to后面直接加地点。

B,  表示天气将如何变化用be going to 。

Look at these clouds, it looks as if it is going to rain.看那些云,看起来好像要下雨。

    2)will,shall表示预见或意图。

A.     shall 用于第一人称;will用于其它人称。

B.      在表示带意愿色彩的将来时态时,常用will。如:

I will tell you everything next time I meet you.

    下次碰到你我会把一切告诉你的。

    She will turn to her mother when her sister does her wrong.当姐姐让她受委屈时她就求助妈妈。

    C.问对方是否愿意或表示客气的请求或

命令时,用will。如:

    Will you stay with us for a while?

    你能和我们呆一会吗?

    Will you please have some more fish?

    请再吃些鱼好吗?

    D.表示建议或征询对方意见用shall,主语用第一人称。如:

Shall I wash your clothes now or later?

    我现在给你洗衣服还是以后洗?

    Shall we go to see the film together?

    我们可以一起去看电影吗?

  注意:在C、D两项中,表示“一些”的概念时,用some而不用any,即使句子为疑问形式。

    3)“be+不定式”表示按计划、安排要发生情况,语气比be going to要强烈。如:

There is to be a meeting to discuss the matter.

    将安排一个会议来讨论这个问题。

    The film is to be shown this Sunday.

    安排这个星期天放映这部电影。

    4)一般现在时态表示将来。用于表示时

间,各种时刻表或主句为将来时态时的时间状语从向、条件状语从句或让步状语从句中。如:

    Tom will work steadily until he leaves the store at 6 p.m..

    汤姆努力工作,直到下午6点才离开商店。

    Today is Sunday, tomorrow is Monday.

    今天是星期天,明天是星期一。

    5)现在进行时态表将来。一些表示位置移动的动词如。come,go,arrive,reach, leave, move, start, begin, get, stay等,常用进行时态表将来。如:

    My brother is coming to see me off at the airport. 我哥哥将到机场送我。

    He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow.

    他明天将去北京。

    (6)过去进行时

    1)表过去某个时刻正在进行的动作。如:

    What were you doing at ten yesterday morning.

    昨天早上10点你在干什么?

    When I called him, he was having dinner.

    我给他打电话的时候,他正在吃饭。

    2)表过去两个动作同时进行时,两个进行式连用。如:

He was watching TV while I was reading.

    我在看书时,他在看电视。

    While we were having breakfast, John was talking on the phone.

    我们在吃早饭时,约翰在打电话。

    3)与always,continually,often,usually等副词连用,表示过去反复的习惯。如:

    He was always having breakfast at ten in the morning. 过去他总是在早上10点吃早饭。

    Whenever I visited him, he was always writing at the desk. 当我去看他的时候,他总是爬在桌子上写东西。

    (7)过去完成式

    1)表截止过去某时为止已完成的事情。

如:

    I had finished my homework before supper yesterday. 昨天晚饭前我已把作业做完了。

    We. had learned 1000 English words by the end  of last term.到上学期末我们已经学了  1000个英语单词了。

    2)表过去两个不同时发生的动作或状态,先发生的用过去完成式,后发生的用一般过去式。如:

    He said he had seen the film the day before.

    他说他前一天看过那部电影了。

    When we arrived at the station we found the train had left. 当我们到火车站时我们发现火车已经离开了。

    但when,after,before引导的时间状语从句,常用过去式代替过去完成式。如:

    Hardly had he left the house when it began to rain.他刚离开家就开始下雨了。

    I had not gone much farther before I caught them up. 我没走多远就赶上他们了。

    3)表过去未实现的希望或计划,常用   hope,expect, suppose, intend, mean, think, want等。如:

    I had expected to go to college, but I failed in the entrance examination.

我本希望上大学,但我没有通过升学考试。

    I had hoped to come to help you, but I was too busy. 我本打算来帮你,但我太忙了。

    4)no sooner…than, hardly…when, scarcely…when连接两个句子时,先发生的动作用过去完成式。如:

    Scarcely had he arrived home when a man called to see him. 他刚到家就有人找他。

    No sooner had I left the house than it begin to rain. 我刚离开房子就开始下雨了。

    (8)过去将来时

    表示从过去某一时间看,将要发生的动作或存在的状态。表示一般将来时态的五种形式全部可用过去将来时态。这一时态常用于宾语从句中,特别是间接引语中。有时还可用来表示“愿望”,多用于否定句,译为“不肯”,“不会”。如:

    It was raining hard, but none of us would stop working. 虽然雨下得很大,但我们没有人愿意停止工作。

    At first we were not sure whether we would succeed.开始我们不知道是否会成功。

    2.动词的语态

    (1)主动语态和被动语态的时态比较:

    (一般现在)He teaches English. →English

is taught by him.

    (一般过去)He taught English. →English was taught by him.

    (一般将来)He will teach English. →English will be taught by him.

    (现在完成)He has taught English.→English has been taught by him.

(过去完成)He had taught English. → English had been taught by him.

    (现在进行) He is teaching English. → English is being taught by him.

    (过去进行)He was teaching English. → English was being taught by him.

    (过去将来)He would teach English. →English would be taught by him.

    (2)被动语态应注意的几个问题:

    1)主动语态中的主语是people,they,we,

you, one,someone, no ,one等,若泛指人,改为被动语态时,常被省略。如:

    People in the U.S.A. speak English.

    在美国人们讲英语。

    →English is spoken in the U.S.A..

    2)“不及物动词+介词+宾语”结构,改为被动语态时,介词不能省略。如:

    Li Ping is looking after her mother.

    李萍正在照顾她的母亲。

→Her mother is being looked after by Li Ping.

常见的短语动词还有:ask for, believe in,  care for, call on, deal with, live on ,look for, refer to, write about, speak well of

    3)跟双宾语的动词,改为被动语态时有两种形式。如:

    Smoking does great harm to health.

    吸烟对健康有害。

→Great harm is done to health by smoking .

→Health is done great harm by smoking.

    4)已被用为表语的过去分词,其后通常不跟by, 而用at, in, with , about, to等。如:

    That pop star is known to everyone.

    那位名星众所周知。

    We are surprised at what he has done.

    我们都很惊奇他所做的事情。

    5)祈使句的被动语态

    A.肯定祈使句

主动语态:动词原形+宾语

被动语态:let+宾语+be+过去分词

Write a letter to me as soon as possible.

尽快给我来信。

→Let a letter be written to me as soon as possible.

B.否定祈使句

主动语态:Don’t+动词原形+宾语

被动语态:Don’t+let+宾语+be+过去分词

    Don’t speak Chinese in English class.

    英语课上不能说汉语。

→Don’t let Chinese be spoken in English class.

    6)“感官动词或使投动词+宾语+动词原

形”结构,改为被动语态时,作补语的动词原形须改为带to的不定式。如:

    The boss makes the workers work 14 hours a day. 老板让工人们每天工作14个小时。

→The workers are made to work 14 hours a day.

7)有宾语补足语的句子改为被动语态时,宾语补足语放在动词之后。如:

The teacher ordered the homework to be finished before six. 老师要求作业6点前完成。

→The homework was ordered to be finished before six.

    We find the problem very difficult.

→The problem is found difficult.

(3)不能变为被动语态的几种情况:

    l)宾语是反身代词时。如:

    John could see himself in the mirror.

    约翰能在镜子里看到自己。

→Himself could be seen in the mirror.(×)

    2)相互代词作宾语时。如:

    We should help each other in our lessons.

    学习上我们应该互相帮助。

→Each other should be helped in our lessons.                              (×)

    3)宾语前有指主格的属格代词时。如:

The man nodded his head.那个人点了点头。

→His head was nodded by the man.   (×)

4)同源宾语。如:

    He dreamed a terrible dream last night.

    昨晚他做了个可怕的梦。

→A terrible dream was dreamed by him last night.                               (×)

    5)动宾关系十分密切不可分割的短语。如:

    He didn’t lose heart. 他没有灰心。

    →Heart was not lost.              (×)

    6)表示状态的及物动词。如:

    Li Tao has a very good health.

    李涛身体很好。

→A very good health is had by Li Tao.                           

                               (×)

    7)非谓语动词作宾语时。如:

    We should practise speaking English every day. 我们应该每天练习讲英语。

→Speaking English should be practised every day.                           (×)

    8)宾语为从句时。如:

    He told me that he will come tomorrow.

    他说他明天来。    →That he will come tomorrow was told to  me.                               (×)

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