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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语语法:虚拟语气  

2008-04-26 11:41:15|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1.虚拟语气用于条件句

    (1)结构

谓语   主从句

  动词

情况

If条件从句

主 句

与现在事实相反

            did(were)

would(should, could,might)+do

与过去事实相反

            had done

would (should,could, might )have done

与将来事实相反

did

            should do

            were to do

would(should, could,might)+do

    If I were you,I shouldn't do that.

    如果我是你,我就不会做那件事。

    If it were to snow tomorrow,they would not go out如果明天下雪,他们就不出去。

   (2)当条件状语从句中谓语动词所表示的动作和主句谓语动词所表示的动作不一致时动词的时态要根据各自的时间来调整。如:

    If we hadn't got everything read by now,we should have a terrible time tomorrow.

    如果到现在我们还没有把一切准备好,明天我们就会很狼狈的。

    If we hadn’t been working hard in the past few years,things wouldn't be going so smoothly.

    如果过去几年我们没有努力工作的话,事情现在就不会这么顺利。

    (3)有时我们省略if,而把助动词、情态动词或系动词提前。如:

    Were I a teacher, I would teach in a school.

    如果我是老师,我会在学校教书的。

    Had he been in my place,he would not have gone.如果他处在我的位置,他就不会走了。

    (4)虚拟条件句中的be一般用were,但有时也可用was。但在倒装句中只能将were提前,如果是was,须把was改为were。如:

    Were it not for their help,we couldn't have got over the difficulties.如果不是他们帮忙,我们就不会克服那些困难。

    Were he here,he might be able to help.

    如果他在这儿,他会帮忙的。’

   (5)虚拟语气的if条件句为否定时,省略if后,应将not放回原处,不能前置。如:

    Had it not been for the reservoir,we'd never have been able to beat the drought.

    如果没有水库,我们就不会战胜干旱。

    Were he not busy,he would have come.

    假如他不忙,他就会来的。

   (6)有时我们用一个介词短语表示条件。如:

    We could have done better under better conditions.条件好一点,我们会做得更好。

    This change couldn’t have taken place without a wise leadrship.

    没有英明的领导,这种变化是不会发生的。

    2虚拟语气用于宾语从句

(l)用在wish后

主语+ wish  +宾语从名          

表示现在的愿望:从句谓语动用过去式

 表示过去的愿望:从句谓语动词 用 had+过去分词或could/would+have+分词

 表示将来的愿望:从句谓语动词用would/could+动词原形

 I wish I hadn’t spent so much money.

    我希望我没有花那么钱。

    I wish I were as strong as you.

    我希望我和你一样强壮。,

   (2)在一坚持(insist),二命令(order,command),三建议(suggest,propose,advise),四要求(ask,demand,require,request)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should十动词原形”,should可省略。如:

    I suggest we should set off at once.

    我建议我们立刻出发。

He insisted that we take up the matter at the meeting.他坚持我们在会上把这个问题说清楚。

 

    当insist作“力言”、“强调”解时,当suggest作“暗示”解时,从句不用虚拟语气。

    3.虚拟语气用于表语从句,同位语从句中advice,idea,order,demand,plan,proposal, suggestion,request等名词的同位语从句,或由其作主语时的表语从句中,谓语动词用“(should)+动词原形”。如:

    My idea is that we(should)send a few students to help them.

    我的想法是我们派几个学生去帮助他们。

    We all agreed to his suggestion that we(should)go to Xi'an for the weekend.

    我们都同意他的建议,周末去西安。

4.虚拟语气用于as if,as though,even if,even though引导的表语从句或状语从句中

                          指过去,从句谓语

      as if               动词用过去完成式。

主  as though          指现在,从句谓语

句  even if           +   动词用过去式。

     even though   指将来,从句谓语

                            动词用过去将来时。

It seems as if it were spring already.

    好像已经是春天了。

    He speaks English so fluently as though he had studied English for many years.他英语讲得很流利,就好像他已经学了好多年英语了。

    5.在so that或 in order that引导的目的状语从句中,动词多用“may (might,can,could)+动词原形”

    She took a taxi to the station in order that she may not miss the train.

    她乘出租车去火车站以便不误火车。

    The teacher spoke slowly so that the students could hear him clearly.

老师讲得很慢以便于学生们能听清楚。

    so that引导目的状语从句时,谓语动词用“may(might,can,could)+动词原形”结构;如果so that引导结果状语从句,不能用此结构。

    6.虚拟语气用于主语从句

   

It is suggested (desired,requested,ordered decided)that…+(should)+动词原形

It is necessary (important,natural,strange,a pity…)that…+(should)+动词原形

    It is requested that we(should)get    everything ready by tonight.要求今晚把一切准备好。

It is strange that she should have failed to see her own shortcomings.

真奇怪她看不到自己的缺点。

    如果说话人对某种事实表示惊奇,就用虚拟语气。如果不表示惊奇,that从句可用陈述语气。

   7.用于“It is(high)time that…”句型中,

that引导定语从句;谓语用过去式或“should动词原形”

    It is(high) time that we went to bed.

    已经到上床睡觉的时间了。

    It is high time that the students should hand in their compositions.到学生交作文的时间了。

    8.用于if only引导的感叹句中。If only意为“…该多好!”

    If only I were a child!

    如果我是个小孩该多好!

    If only I hadn't lost it!

    如果我没有把它丢失该多好!

    9.虚拟语气用于下列情况表示“委婉”

    (1)陈述看法

    I don’t think he would be so careless.

    我想他不会那么粗心。

    I should be glad to talk to him.

    我会很高兴和他交谈的。

    (2)提出请求

    Would you leave a note for her?

    你能给她留个便条吗?

    Would you mind turning the light on?

    把灯打开你介意吗?

    (3)提出建议,劝告

    You’d better leave the matter to me.

    你最好把这件事让我处理。

    Perhaps you could get better results this way.

    用这种方法你也许会得到更好的结果。

    (4)提出问题

    What would you advise me to do?

    你建议我做什么?

    Which seat might I take?我该坐哪个位子?

    10.“may+动词原形”表示“祝愿”

    May  you  be  happy!祝你幸福!

    May the friendship between our two peoples last forever.祝我们两国人民之间的友谊万古长青!

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