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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语必修三第四单元重点、难点  

2009-12-17 19:55:02|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit Four  Astronomy: the science of the stars

1、They were followed in time by land animals. 陆地动物及时出现。

   in time及时;终于

   A stitch in time saves nine. 小洞不补,大洞尺五。

   You will get used to it in time. 最终你会习惯的。

   易混辨析:

   in time和on time

   in time表示“及时;终于”; 而on time表示“按时”。

   联想扩展:

   in no time  立即;马上 at one time 曾经;一度 at a time 一次  at any time 在任何时候 at times有时;偶尔  from time to time 有时

   即时活用:

   – How often do you go to see your parents?

--- __________.

A. In no time   B. After a while   C. In a short time    D. From time to time

     答案:D

2、They produced young generally by laying eggs. 它们以产蛋的方式生产后代。

   lay eggs 下蛋

   How many eggs does you hen lay every week? 你的母鸡每周下多少蛋?

   联想扩展:

   lay the table 摆桌子 lay up 储存;搁置  lay over 推迟  lay the blame on 责怪  lay the foundation 奠定基础  lay to  归咎于 lay open  摊开;揭露  lay out  摆开;展示 lay aside 放在一边;积蓄 lay down 放下;放弃 lay for 等候

3、These animals were different from all life forms in the past, because they gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.

   这些动物和以前的任何生物形式都不同,因为它们产仔并用奶水喂养它们。

   give birth to…生产;产生

   She gave birth to a healthy baby last night. 昨晚她生了一个健康的婴儿。

   That century gave birth to many great men. 那个世纪产生了许多伟人。

4、These animals were different from all life forms in the past, because they gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.

   这些动物和以前的任何生物形式都不同,因为它们产仔并用奶水喂养它们。

   feed vt.

   用法归纳:

  (1)饲养

   If I am laid-off, I will feed some pigs. 如果下岗,我就养猪。

   Do you feed any pets at home? 你在家养宠物吗?

   特别提示:

   feed作“饲养”讲时,等于raise 和keep。

  (2)喂养

   We feed grass to sheep. 我们给羊喂草。

   We feed sheep with grass. 我们用草喂羊。

   特别提示:

   注意feed当“喂养”讲时动物和饲料的前后顺序关系以及不同介词的用法。

   即时活用:

   1、He______ a lot of chicken______ his farm.

      A. rises; in     B. keeps; on      C. raises; in        D. supports; on

        答案:B

   2、– I have a very bad cold.

--- Well, have you ever heard of a saying which goes “_______ a cold and starve a fever?”

      A. feeding     B. to feed    C. fed     D. feed

     答案:D

5、Finally about 2.6 million years ago some small clever animals, now with hands and feet, appeared and spread all over the world.

   最后大约在两百六十万年前,一些有手有脚的小型聪明动物出现了,并且扩散到世界各地。

   spread v.

   用法归纳:

  (1)传播;传开(vi.)

   Bad news spreads quickly. 坏消息传的很快。

   Word spread that there was a variant virus of H1N1. 消息称H1N1病毒已经产生变异。

  (2)铺开;展开(vt.)

   The bird spread its wings and was about to fly. 鸟伸开翅膀准备要飞。

   She spread a new sheet over the bed. 她给床上铺了一个新床单。

  (3)涂;抹(vt.)

   Please spread the paint evenly. 把油漆抹均匀。

   It’s better for you to spread the honey on the bread. 你最好把蜂蜜抹在面包上。

  (4)伸展;延伸(vi.)

   Xi’an is spreading to the north and the west. 西安正在向北向西延伸。

   The forest spreads from here to the foot of Qinling mountains. 森林从这儿延伸到秦岭山脚下。

   联想扩展:

   spread out 伸开;散开;铺开  spread over 覆盖一片;持续  spread with 在…上涂抹

   即时活用:

   Soon the news ________ across the whole country, ______the people.

A. spread; exciting        B. spread; excited   

C. was spread; excited       D. was spread; exciting

      答案:A

6、Thus, in their turn, become the most important animals on the planet.

这样,轮到它们成为这个星球最重要的动物。

in one’s turn轮到某人;接着

   Please get on the bus in your turn. 该你上车了。

   联想扩展:

   at every turn  事事;经常 by turns 轮流  go for a turn  散步;除去兜风 on the turn  在变质

out of turn 不合时宜的  take a turn 转弯  take turns 轮流  to a turn 恰好

7、They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space.

   它们向大气层排放大量的二氧化碳,这阻止热量向外层空间释放。

   prevent…from doing 防止 /阻止…发生

   We must prevent the news from spreading. 我们应该阻止这个消息的传播。

   Nothing can prevent him from going away. 什么也不能阻止他离开。

   特别提示:

  (1)这个句型中prevent还可以被stop或keep替代。

  (2)主动句中,prevent和stop后面的from可以省略,keep后的from不能省略;被动句中三个词后的from都不能省略。

   联想扩展:

   prevent vt. 防止;预防;阻止

  (1)跟名词或代词

   Man is finding ways to prevent natural disasters. 人类正在寻找预防自然灾害的办法。

   Vitamin C is supposed to prevent colds. 据认为维生素C能预防感冒。

  (2)跟动名词

   Teachers now have no ways to prevent students’ listening to MP3 in class.

   老师们现在没办法阻止学生们上课听MP3。

   H1N1 flu prevented his coming to school. 甲流使他不能来上课。

  (3)prevention n.预防;防止

  (4)preventive adj. 预防性的

   即时活用:

   1、We should do what we can to ______ the Changjiang River______.

      A. stop; from polluting     B. keep; from being polluted

      C. prevent; from polluting    D. keep; being polluting

      答案:B

   2、Nobody can stop the naughty boy ______.

A. from punishing   B. being punishing   C. from being punished  D. to be punished

      答案:C

   3、The heavy rain ______ us starting out on time.

      A. kept     B. prevented    C. protected    D. was stopped

      答案:B

   4、It seems very difficult _________.

A. to stop the child to cry     B. restraining the child to cry

C. to keep the child from crying     D. holding the child’s crying

      答案:C

8、So whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved.

   所以,在未来几百万年时间里生命能否在地球上延续取决与这个问题能否得到解决。

   depend vi.

   用法归纳:

  (1)依靠

   We students are depending on our parents now. 我们学生现在在依靠父母。

   The town depends entirely upon tourism. 这个小镇主要依靠旅游。

  (2)依赖;指望

   I mainly depended on his helping, but he didn’t turn up. 我主要指望他帮忙,但是他没来。

   There was no bus now, so we had to depend on our legs. 现在没有班车了,我们只有指望双腿了。

  (3)由…决定;取决于

   Whether we will hold the sports meeting depends on the weather. 我们是否举行运动会取决于天气。

   The price depends on the quality. 价格取决于质量。

   特别提示:

   depend是不及物动词,后面一般要跟on或upon。

   联想扩展:

   It / That (all) depends. 视情况而定  

   即时活用:

   1、I’m planning to hold a party in the open air, but I can make no guarantees because it _____ the weather.

A. links with B. depends on C. connects to D. decides on

      答案:B

   2、The meaning of the word is various ______ different situation.

A. depends on    B. depending   C. depending on    D. depended on

      答案:C

   3、– Will you go with us to the National Park?

--- Well, it _______.

A. depending   B. depends   C. depends on     D. is depended

     答案:B

   4、—How wide is the Yellow River?  —That ___ from where to where.

A. depends    B. changes    C. refers     D. lies

     答案:A

9、As a result of this event, a great dust cloud formed in the sky blocking out the sunlight.

   这个事件的结果就是,天空形成了一团团的灰尘,遮蔽了阳光。

   block out vt. 封闭;遮挡

   That wall blocks out all the light. 那堵墙把光都遮住了。

   Block out the unimportant part on the picture. 把照片上不重要的部分遮住。

   联想扩展:

   block vt.

  (1)堵住;阻塞

   A big stone has fallen from the mountain and blocked the road. 一个大石头从山上掉下来阻塞了道路。

   The pipe of heat must be blocked up. 暖气管子肯定是堵住了。

  (2)阻碍;阻挡

   The wet weather blocked our plan for a trip. 下雨阻碍了我们的出行计划。

   The other player tried to block my advance, but he failed. 另一个球员试图阻挡我前进,但是没档住。

10、Then we were off. 然后我们就出发。

    off

(1) (和某些动词连用)…开;…掉

The bird flew off. 鸟飞走了。

I must dash off.  我必须马上离开。

(2) (作表语)走掉;动身走

Are you really off? 你真要走吗?

I must be off now.  我必须要走。

(3) (和某些动词连用)…下去

Cut the end off.  把头切掉。

Mind you don’t fall off.  小心别掉下去。

(4)距离多远(时间;空间)

Summer is only a week off. 再有一个星期就到夏天了。

They live two blocks off. 他们离我们只有两个街区。

(5) 不工作;休息

The manager gave the staff a day off. 经理让员工休息一天。

If you finish your work today, you can have tomorrow off.. 如果你今天做完工作,我就让你明天休息一天。

11、I cheered up immediately and floated weightlessly around in our spaceship cabin watching the earth become smaller and the moon larger.

   我立刻感到高兴,由于失重我在太空舱里飘来飘去,我望着身后的地球越来越小,而前方的月球越来越大。

   cheer up 感到高兴;感到振奋

Cheer up! Things are not so bad as they seem. 别泄气,事情不像看起来那么糟。

The good news has cheered him up. 好消息让他精神振奋。

12、If you are right, my mass will be less than on the earth because the moon is smaller and I will be able to move more freely.

   如果你正确,我的体重要比在地球上小,因为月球比地球小,这样我就能更自如活动了。

   mass n. 一堆;一块;一团

   In cold winter, the pond will become a solid mass of ice. 寒冷的冬天,池塘会变成一块坚硬的冰。

   I found a mass of concret on the bed. 我在床上发现了一块水泥。

   联想扩展:

  (1)a mass of = masses of 大量的;许多

   After harvest, we will have a mass of rice. 收获以后,我们会有大量的水稻。

   I have masses of work to do today. 我今天又许多工作要做。

   特别提示:

   a mass of = masses of 表示“大量的;许多”时,既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。

  (2)the masses 群众

   The masses are the true makers of history. 人民群众是历史的真正缔造者。

   The party should rely on the masses. 党应该依靠群众。

  (3)in the mass 一般来说

   The work is well done in the mass. 大体上说工作做得不错。

13、Walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed. 由于引力变化了,步行都需要练习。

    now that既然

   Now that you have arrived, let’s start the meeting. 既然你们到了,我们开会吧。

   because , since , as , for  now that; seeing that 由于,因为

    Because

(1)       because为从属连词,引导原因状语从句,表示直接而明确的原因或理由,语气最强;所引导的从句可放在主句之前,也可放在其后,但后者居多。

Jenny didn’t want to do that because her parents were very strict with her.

詹尼不想做那件事是由于她父母对她要求很严。

       特别提示:

为了加强语气,because前还可以加某些副词,如only, just, simply等。

He didn’t answer my question only because he couldn’t.

他没有回答我的问题仅仅是因为他不会。

(2)       because 能回答why的提问。

(3)  because引导的从句可以用于强调句型。

It is because he is ill that he is absent. 他没来是由于他生病了。

Since和as

Since和as, now that; seeing that 引导的从句强调结果,不强调原因,因此,它们引导的从句一般放在句首。Since 比as 语气强,表示自然的因果关系,常被译为“既然”。as表示的原因语气最弱,常用于日常谈话中,讲话人认为某种理由很明显或对方很熟悉,不需要强调。

      Since the two children were brought up in the south, they have never seen snow.

      由于两个男孩在南方长大,他们没见过雪。

      As it was getting very late, we soon turned back. 天晚了,我们很快回家。

For

    并列连词for常被译为“因为”,但它并不说明原因,只表示一种附带的或补充的解释或说明,或者表示一种推理;for引导的从句不能放在句首。

        We must start early, for we have a long way to go. 我们应该早点出发,因为我们又很远的路要走。

14、After a while I got the hang of it and we began to enjoy ourselves.

    过了一会儿我就理解了,我们就开始尽情的玩耍。

    get / have the hang of  学会使用;懂得

    I can’t get the hang of his speech. 我们有弄懂他讲演的意思。

    The new machine is very easy to operate, you will soon get the hang of it.

    联想扩展:

    give a hang about 对…有兴趣

    I don’t give a hang about pop music. 我对流行音乐没兴趣。

15、We watched, amazed as fire broke out on the outside of the spaceship as the earth’s gravity increased.

    我们惊奇的看着,随着地球引力的增加,宇宙飞船的外层燃烧起火。

    break out

    用法归纳:

   (1)爆发

    The economic crisis broke out first in the United States. 经济危机首先在美国爆发。

    The First World War broke out in 1914. 第一次世界大战在1914年爆发。

   (2)突然发生

    Flu usually breaks out in winter. 流感一般发生在冬季。

    A big fire broke out in the factory last night. 昨晚工厂发生大火。

   (3)突然大声

    People listening to the joke broke out laughing. 听笑话的人突然大笑起来。

    联想扩展:

break…up 结束;拆开  break down 出故障;失败;身体垮了  break…down打到;破坏;消除

break off断开;折断;中断  break in闯入;打断;插话  break into 强行进入;打断  break through

冲过;克服;战胜  break up 驱散;分开;放假

   即时活用:

   News reports say peace talks between the two countries have _____ with no agreement reached.

A. broken down B. broken out C. broken in D. broken up

答案:A

16、The spaceship warned Li Yanping and me to be ready as we were approaching the “black hole”.

    当我们离黑洞越来越近的时候,宇宙飞船提醒我们让我们做好准备。

    warn vt. 警告

    用法归纳:

   (1) warn sb. of / about sth. 警告 / 提醒某人某事

    Black clouds warned us of the approaching storm. 乌云告知我们即将到来的暴风雪。

    I warned him about the danger of climbing the mountain. 我提醒过他爬山的危险性。

   (2) warn sb. (not) to do sth. 警告某人(别)做某事

    The teacher warned us to wear warm clothes tomorrow. 老师要我们明天穿暖和些。

    The guide warned us not to swim in the river. 向导警告我们别在河里游泳。

   (3)warn sb. against doing sth. 警告某人别做某事

    She warned me against being over-confident. 她警告我别太自信。

    Father often warns me against driving fast. 父亲常常提醒我开车别太快。

   (4)warn sb. that… 警告;告诉某人可能发生某情况

    I warn you that if you do this again you will be punished.

我警告你如果你再做这件事情你将会受到惩罚。

Haven’t I warned you that it was not allowed? 我没警告过你这不允许吗?

即时活用:

We are ________ by doctors to eat more natural food and take plenty of physical exercises.

A. suggested       B. warned of         C. informed         D. advised

    答案:D

 

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