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杨吉辉英语工作室

学英语没有捷径,只有不断的努力。加油!你会成功的。

 
 
 

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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语必修一第五单元重点、难点  

2009-12-17 09:42:12|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

Unit five Nelson Mandela – a modern hero

1、A great person is someone who devotes his /her life to helping others.

   一个伟大的人就是一个把一生用于帮助别人的人。

   devote… to… 献身于…

   The old man has devoted all his life to teaching. 那位老人把一生献给了教育事业。

   She devotes all her spare time to looking after her sick mother.

   她把所有的空余时间都花在照顾生病的母亲上。

   特别提示:

   devote… to…句型中的宾语多用 (all) one’s life; (all) one’s time; one’s effort / efforts。

   即时活用:

   1、Although the working mother is very busy, she still _____a lot of time to her children.

        A. devotes     B. spends    C. offers     D. provides

      答案:A

   2、_____ two years to ________after the sick woman, she badly needed a holiday.

A. Devoting herself; look      B. Devoted; looking  C. Devoting; looking      D. Devoted; looked

答案:B

2、He fought against the German Nazis and Japanese invaders during World War II.

   第二次世界大战中,他反对德国纳粹和日本侵略者。

fight vt.& vi. 战斗

 用法归纳:

(1)fight with.. 和…并肩作战

 We fought with the Soviet Red Army during World War II.

第二次世界大战期间我们和苏联红军并肩战斗。

 (2)fight against 反对; 和…作斗争

   Every one should fight against pollution. 每个人都应该和污染作斗争。

 (3)fight for…为…而战

   Nelson Mandela fought for the equal rights of the black people in South Africa.

   纳尔逊曼德拉为了南非黑人的平等权利而战。

 (4)fight back 还击;还手

   If you beat me again, I will fight back. 如果你再打我,我就还手了。

   即时活用:

   England fought ______ Germany in the war of 1914—1918.

   A. against      B. with      C. for       D. to

   答案:A

3、He offered guidance to poor black people on their legal problems.

   他为贫穷的黑人群众提供法律引导。

offer vt. 提供

用法归纳:

  (1) 主动提出做某事

   My daughter offered to clean the room yesterday. 女儿昨天主动提出打扫房间。

   特别提示:

   offer表示“主动提出做某事”时,后面一般跟动词不定式。

  (2)主动给与

   They offered me a cup of tea when I arrived. 我到的时候他们给我了一杯茶。

  (3)出价

   How much do you offer for my car?  我的车你给多少钱?

   特别提示:

   offer表示“出价”时,一般用 “ offer some money for sth.”句型。

   联想扩展:

  (1)“要价;索价”用 “ charge some money for sth.” 句型。

I charge 100,000 Yuan for this car. 这辆车我要十万块钱。

  (2)offer还可以作名词,表示“提供;报价”。

   He didn’t accept my offer. 他没有接受我的报价。

   即时活用:

  1、 —Why are you looking pleased ?

        —Oh , I’ve just had a job _____.

      A.offered  B.offering  C.to offer  D.being offered 

      答案:A

  2、– How much do you _____ mending a pair of shoes?

-- $ 15.

     A. ask     B. spend for   C. charge for   D. pay

     答案:C

  3、The missing boy was last seen ______ near the river.

A. to be playing     B. play    C. playing     D. having played

         答案:C

  4、– How much do you _____ mending a pair of shoes?

-- $ 15.

     A. ask     B. spend for   C. charge for   D. pay

     答案:C

4、The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.

   过去三十年来所出现的大量法律剥夺了我们的权利,阻挡我们的进步,一直到今天,我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。

see + O + OC

用法归纳:

  (1)see sb. / sth. do 看到过某人做某事

   Did you see anyone go into the building? 你看到有人进这栋大楼吗?

   特别提示:

   在see sb. / sth. do句型中,do表示动作的全过程,即动作已经结束。被动句中,作宾语补足语的不定式要带to。

  (2)see sb. / sth. doing  看到某人 /某物正在做…

   I can see some boys playing basketball on the playground. 我看到一群男孩在操场上大篮球。

  (3)see sb. / sth. done 看到某人/某物被…

   Looking up I saw his eyes fixed on me in curoisity. 一抬头我看到他双眼好奇的看着我。

  (4) see sb. / sth + adj.

   It was the first time the students had ever seen the teacher really angry.

   这是第一次学生们看到老师真的生气了。

  (5)see sb. / sth +介词短语

   Seeing me in need of money, my father gave me some. 看到我需要钱,我爸爸就给了我一些。

   联想扩展:

   see about 负责处理  see after  照顾  see…off 送别   see through 看穿;识破  see to 处理;

修理

即时活用:

1、The ______ boy was last seen ____ near the East Lake .

A. missing; playing   B. missing; play   C. missed; played  D. missed; to play

答案:A

2、– Have you seen Mary today?

      --- Yes, I ________a minute ago.

A. see her come in        B. have seen her to come in

C. saw her come in        D. see her coming in

答案:C

   3、A man was seen _______ to break into the house.

A. try  B. trying  C. tried  D. to try

      答案:B

   4、I thought I saw Professor Davis ______ in the library last night.

A. working     B. to work    C. worked    D. works

      答案:A

5、The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.

   过去三十年来所出现的大量法律剥夺了我们的权利,阻挡我们的进步,一直到今天,我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。

progress / advance 进步

Scientists have made much progress in medicine these years.

这些年科学家们在医学方面取得了很多进步。

特别提示:

  (1) progress是不可数名词;advance是可数名词。

 (2)“取得进步”用 make progress / make advance

6、The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.

   过去三十年来所出现的大量法律剥夺了我们的权利,阻挡我们的进步,一直到今天,我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。

  at all

  用法归纳:

 (1)用于疑问句,表示“到底;根本”。

   What do you want to say at all ? 你到底想说什么?

 (2)用于否定句,表示“一点也不;根本不”。

   I don’t want to learn English at all. 我根本不想学英语。

 (3)用于条件句,表示“真的”。

   If it rains tomorrow at all, we will put off the sports meet. 如果明天真的下雨,我们就把运动会推迟。

 (4)用于陈述句,表示“确实”。

   It took me a long time to write an answer to your letter at all. 给你写回信确实花了我很长时间。

  特别提示:

  at all用在句子里都是为了加强语气。

  联想扩展:

(1)in all  总计;合计

 There are over 2000 students in this school in all. 这个学校总共有两千多学生。

(2)after all  毕竟;终究;别忘了

  The little boy can’t lift the heavy box, after all, he is only five.

小男孩提不起那个重箱子,毕竟,他只有五岁。

(3)above all 最重要的是

  When you are studying English, you should remember the new words, learn some grammar, above all, you should study hard.

  学英语时,你要记单词,学语法,最重要的是,你要努力学习。

  即时活用:

  1、I thought I was going to fail the exam, but I succeeded _______.

  A.first all   B.in all   C.at all   D.after all

   答案:D

    2、I would like to rent a flat, modern, comfortable and ______ in a quiet environment.

     A. after all     B. at all     C. in all    D. above all

   答案:D

    3、______, you must tell us the truth, then we will find a way to help you to get out of the trouble.

      A. After all     B. In all      C. At all      D. First of all

    答案:D

    4、Children need many things, _______, they need love.

      A. after all        B. first of all       C. last of all     D. at last

     答案:B

7、When this was not allowed… only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.

   当这一点不被允许…只有这个时候我们才决定以武力对武力。

allow vt. 允许;同意

用法归纳;

(1)+ n.

 Most teachers don’t allow noise in their classes. 大部分老师不允许上课时有声音。

(2)+doing

 We don’t allow smoking in offices. 我们不允许在办公室吸烟。

(3)allow sb. to do sth.

  Does your English teacher allow you to speak Chinese in his class?

  你们英语老师允许你们在英语课上说汉语吗?

 特别提示:

 (1)forbid“禁止”和allow 意思完全相反,但用法完全相同。

 (2)千万记住,没有 agree sb. to do sth. 句型。

  即时活用:

    1、You aren’t allowed ______basketball if you haven’t finished your homework.

       A. play    B. playing      C. to playing      D. to play

    答案:D

2、A: Oh, how much freedom do your parents give you ,Jennifer?

       B: Well , quite a lot .I mean I’m allowed  _____ most evenings.

      A.of going out   B.go out    C.going out     D.out

      答案:D

3、What worried the child most was _____ to visit his brother in hospital.

      A.his not being allowed  B.his not allowing  

C.his being not allowed   D.having not been allowed

答案:A

   4、Father will not ____ us to touch anything in his room when he is away.

A. have     B.let      C. agree     D. allow

  答案:D

   5、–Will you ______me ____out this problem myself?

---OK.

A. make; work   B. permit; working   C. let; work   D. allow; work

     答案:C

7、but in 1963 I helped him blow up some government buildings.

   但是在1963年,我帮助他炸了一些政府大楼。

   blow up 使充气;爆炸

The soldiers blew up the bridge with dynamite.  士兵们用炸药炸毁了那座桥。

You should blow up your bike tires. 你应该给车胎充气了。

联想扩展:

blow hot and cold 喜怒无常 blow it 他妈的(骂人)  blow off steam 发脾气 

blow one’s own horn 自吹自擂 blow one’s top 怒发冲冠 blow over 被淡忘 blow out 熄火;爆裂

8、You can’t imagine how the name of Robben Island made us afraid.

   你无法想象罗本岛这个名字听起来多么令我们恐惧。

imagine vt.想象;设想

用法归纳:

(1)+n.

 Some people always imagine illnesses that don’t exist. 有些人总是现象得了根本没有的疾病。

(2)+从句

 As I lie in bed I like to imagine that I am a student in the classroom.

 躺在床上我总是喜欢想象我是一个学生,正在教室上课。

 I can’t imagine why they are against him. 我不能想象他们为什么反对他。

(3)+ doing

 I can’t imagine living without electricity.  我不敢想象如果没电该怎么生活。

(4)imagine + O + doing

 The fans can’t imagine Hou Yaohua lying on TV. 粉丝们不能想象侯耀华在电视上说假话。

 联想扩展

 inagination n. 想象力

 易混辨析:

 imaginary 和imaginative

 两个词都是形容词,但imaginary表示“想象出来的;虚构的”。而imaginative表示“有想象力的”。

 Ghosts are imaginary. 鬼怪是想象出来的。

 His imaginative writing made him a great writer.

他富有想象力的写作使他成为了一个伟大的作家。

即时活用:

I can hardly imagine Peter ______ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.

      A. sail    B. sailing    C. to sail    D. to have sailed

  答案:B

9、However, the police found out and told my boss that I hade been in prison for blowing up government buildings.

但是,警察发现了我的事情并且告诉了我的老板,由于炸毁了一些政府大楼我曾经坐过牢。

find out 发现;了解

用法归纳:

(1)+ 名词或代词

 We must find out the truth of the matter. 我们应该了解事情的真相。

 You will be sorry if we find out the secret. 如果我们发现那个秘密你会很不好看的。

(2)+连接代词或连接副词+to do

 If you keep on practising, you will soon find out how to drive a car.

 如果你不停的练习,你很快就会发现怎么开车的。

(3)+ that从句

 How did you find out that he had had an H1N1 flu? 你是怎么发现他得甲流的?

(4)+连接代词或连接副词引导的从句

 I haven’t found out who broke the window.  我还没有了解到是谁把窗子打破的。

 特别提示:

 (1)find 和find out都能表示“发现”,但find表示结果;find out表示过程。

 (2)find有find + O + OC句型;find out没有这个句型。

 即时活用:

1、---Mark, I failed in the exam again. I’m so upset.

---Don’t worry. I think the first thing ______ is ______your weak points.

A. to do, find out   B. being done, to find out  

C. to do, to hold out  D. being done, hold out

     答案:A

    2、– When will the plane arrive?

       --- I will tell you when __________.

A. I have been finding out      B. I find out    C. I am finding out         D. I will find out

答案:B

    3、Tom is badly ill in hospital. The doctors are trying their best to______ what’s the matter with him.

       A. find out     B. find      C. invent      D. discover

       答案:A

    4、– When will the plane arrive?

        --- I will tell you when __________.

A. I have been finding out      B. I find out    C. I am finding out            D. I will find out

      答案:B

10、They said that the job and the pay from the new South African government were my reward after working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks.

    他们说新南非政府给我的工作和工资是对我一生致力于为黑人平等权利而工作的奖赏。

    易混辨析:

award , prize , reward   奖

award “奖,奖品”。对于优异成绩获卓越贡献经过评定后正式授予的奖励。奖励可以是精神的,也可以是物质的。其获得这并不一定参加某种竞赛,但其成绩却达到获奖水平。

prize “奖赏,奖品”。确认某人在竞赛中取得优异成绩并给与特殊奖励。含有优胜者几经拼搏,胜利来之不易的意思。广义指极好的东西,珍品。

reward “报答,酬劳”不指荣誉,指应得的报酬。

即时活用:

It is widely accepted that young babies learn to do things because certain acts lead to _____.

      A. rewards    B. prizes      C. awards      D. results

答案:A

11、 We were surprised when he left University to set up his own company “Microsoft” and make his own software.

     当他离开大学建立自己的公司“微软”并且制造软件时我们都感到惊奇。

     易混辨析:

    set up; build; found; put up 建立

    set up “开办;建立”。常和表示组织、机构、团体等意义的名词连用;与found基本相同,但found更着重打基础。

    build “建成;建设”。常指建造较大物体。在表示建立一个商店、企业时多用start或open。

    found 指建立国家、政权、组织。

    put up 指“临时搭建”。着重指建造或搭起具有高度的具体的物体。

    联想扩展:

        set about 开始;散布  set back 往回拨;推迟  set aside 挑出;不顾;不理会  set apart 使分离;留出 set forth  动身;启程;阐明 set off 动身;出发;引爆 set oneself against 坚决反对 set out 动身;开始;装饰;摆放  set out to do sth 着手做   set about doing sth着手做

    即时活用:

     1、________in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States .

A. Being founded    B. It was founded   C. Founded    D. Founding

       答案:C

     2、It’s ten years since the scientist _____ on his life’s work of discovering the valuable chemical.

    A. made for B. set out C. took off D. turned up

    答案:B

     3、Having decided to rent a flat, we _____ contacting all the accommodation agencies in the city.

    A. set about B. set down C. set out D. set up

    答案:A 

     4、Rita ______ two hours every Sunday afternoon to spend with her son.

   A. set out  B. set away  C. set aside  D. set off

   答案:C

     5、The funny story ____ a loud laugh in the classroom.

   A. got off  B. set off  C. took off  D. turned out

   答案:C

12、Even the government is against him and has tried to break his company into two parts.

甚至连政府都反对他,并且试图把他的公司一分为二。

against prep. 反对

用法归纳:

(1)be against

 A. 反对

 Who is really against you? 谁真正的反对你?

B. 与…不利

Everything here is against me. 这里的一切都与我不利。

(2)go against

 A. 与…不利 = be against

 B. 违背;违反

 Students’ smoking goes against the school rules. 学生吸烟是违反校规的。

  特别提示:

  against 作介词表示“反对”时,翻译比较灵活。

  Don’t kick the ball against the wall. 别对着墙踢球。

  We wen home against the wind yesterday. 昨天我们逆着风回家。

  即时活用:

      The boy was late. He tried to enter the classroom without being noticed by the teacher, but luck______ him.

     A. went with      B. went against      C. went along      D. went over

 答案:B

13、Choose the words or expressions from the brackets to complete the passage below.

    从括号中选词或短语完成下面短文。

complete

用法归纳:

(1)作形容词

 A. 完全的;完整的

  This is a complete story. 这是一个完整的故事。

  You are completely wrong. 你完全错了。

B. 完成

  The building is complete now. 大楼建成了。

(2)做及物动词

 A. 完成 =finish

  The building has been completed. 大楼已经建成了。

 B. 使…完整或完善

  I want to buy two more books to complete my set.

我想再买两本书使我的那套书完整。

易混辨析:

achieve, complete, finish 和accomplish   完成

achieve 指完成伟大事业。

complete 强调使某物完善完整。

finish 强调事情的终结。

accomplish 指成功地完成预期的计划、任务等。

即时活用:

1、When____, the museum will be open to the public next year.

       A.completing  B.completed  C.being completed  D.to be completed

        答案: B

2、I need one more stamp before my collection ______.

A. has completed           B. completes      C. has been completed   D. is completing

  答案:C

3、I have ______ works of Shakespeare. I have spent $ 300.

A. completed   B. a complete    C. finished    D. a completed

  答案:B

4、I need one more _______ my collection of Bird stamp.

A. to complete    B. to have completed   C. finishing  D. to have finished

答案:A

     5、I have ______ works of Shakespeare. I have spent $ 300.

A. completed   B. a complete    C. finished    D. a completed

答案:B

 

 

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