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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语选修8第一单元重点、难点  

2010-04-23 15:18:06|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

Unit 1  A Land of Diversity

命题考点探究

1. diversity = variety  n. 差异(性),不同(点); 多样性(化)、变化

a diversity of vegetables

diversify vt. 使…多样性,使…不同

diversify one’s skills / interests

We should diversify the syllabus (教学大纲)to attract  more students.

A company should diversify.

2. illustrate vt. 说明、阐明(用图示、实例等)

The lecturer illustrated the theory with examples.

Please illustrate how to use the machine.

illustration  n. 实例  

by way of illustration 以实例说明

3.California is the third largest state in the USA but has the largest population. 加利福尼亚是美国第三大州但却是人口最多的。

关键透析

  序数词可以修饰形容词的最高级

   The Yellow River is the second longest  river in China. 黄河是中国第二大河。

   I’d like to buy the second most expensive camera. 我想买最贵的照相机。

联想拓展

可以修饰形容词最高级的词:far , by far , much, nearly,almost等。

可以修饰比较级的词:rather, far, still, even,  no , a little , a bit , any , slightly , by far 等。

即时活用

You’re standing too near the camera . Can you move ____?(B)

A a bit far               B a little farther

C a bit of farther    D  a little far

4. population  n.  人口

用法归纳

      表示整体人口时谓语动词用单数,表示部分人口时谓语动词用复数。 而形容人口的多少通常用large / small.

The population of China____ _ large. And 70% of the population of China_______ peasants.    (is/are)

对人口的多少进行疑问时,可用

What’s the population of ….?

What’s the population of Guangdong?

have a population of ….   有多少人口

China has a population of 1.3 billion.

an increase / growth in population  人口的增加

5. The customs and languages of the immigrants live on in their new home.

用法归纳

(1). 继续活着,继续存在

She died ten years ago but her memory lives on. 她十年前就去世了,但她却留在人们的记忆中。

(2). live on sth: 以…为生;仅以…为主要食物;靠…生活

Small birds live mainly on insects. 小鸟主要靠食昆虫为主。

She lives on burgers. 她只喜欢吃汉堡包。

You can’t live on forty pounds a week. 你靠每周四十英镑没法过活。

 

6. When the first people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows.  宾语从句

= the place that we now know as California. (定语从句)

即时活用

George Washington was born in ______ is now the state of Virginia.  (D)

  1. which    B. where      C. that    D. what 

= George Washington was born in the place

 that is now the state of Virginia.

(1)       Pudong Development Zone is no longer a rural area ________ it used to be. (C)

定语从句, 先行词是area, that作关系代词

(2) Pudong Development Zone is no longer  ________ it used to be.  (A)

A. what    B. where    C. that   D. there

7.  However, it is likely that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago.

It is likely/possible/probable that …….   …….是可能的

关键透析

sb/sth is likely to do sth

某人/物有可能做某事

注意: likely 比较级为 likelier, 最高级为 likeliest

e.g. She is ______to succeed.(likely)

       她有可能会成功.

 = It is likely that she will succeed.

This is a ________story.(likely)

这是一个有可能发生的故事.

易混辨析:  likely, possible, probable

         按可能性程度,probable可能性最大,其次为

likely, 最小为possible.但需要注意的是,likely的主语可以是人,但possible, probable却只能用形式主语it.

8. by means of : by using 依靠、凭借

那个囚犯从秘密通道逃走了。

The prisoner escaped by means of a secret tunnel.

思想可以凭借音乐的形式来表现。

Thoughts can be expressed by means of music.

means : All possible means have been tried.

 Every possible means has been tried.

The quickest means of travel is by air.

联想拓展

by all means  无论如何、当然可以

by no means 一点也不、绝不

We can succeed ______________(通过)hard work. (by means of)

You can get there ____________________ (乘坐多种交通工具). (by many means of transport)

9. force …into …强迫…成为、做、进入…

They forced him into signing (to sign) the paper.

He forced his feet into his shoes.

She was forced into crime by circumstances.

她为境遇所迫而犯罪。

The fellow forced his way into my home.

那家伙强行闯入我家。

10. Spanish soldiers arrived in South America in the early 16th century when(定语从句) they fought against the native people and took their land.

西班牙士兵最早是在16世纪初来到南美的,(当时)他们同土著人打仗,夺取了他们的土地。

关键透析

People from Africa have been living in California since the 1800s, when they moved north from Mexico.

非洲人从 19世纪就在加利福尼亚住下来,(当时)他们是从墨西哥向北来的。

Even more arrived between 1942 and 1945 when they came to California to work in the ship and aircraft industries.

更多的非洲人是在1942年到1945年间来到加利福尼亚的,当时他们是到船厂或飞机厂工作的。

take 捕捉、获胜、占领、夺取等

take a tiger / a fort (城堡 )/ a prisoner / a degree(学位)/ a bribe(受贿)

12. the /a majority (of) 大多数、大部分

The / A majority of the country speak(s) English.

The / A majority  of students were/was against the policy.

The majority is / are always able to impose (强加)its/ their will on the minority.

majority  n.   大多数…

The majority____________ for the budget.  (was / were)

The majority of students ________ hard-working. (are/ is)

The majority of the damage _______ easy to repair.(is)

特别提示

  单独做主语时,若强调整体,谓语动词用单数,

  强调个体时,谓语动词用复数 。

  minority    少数……

be in (the /a) majority 占多数、过半数

即时活用

1).Those who are for the proposal _______.(C)

  1. in the majority         B. are the majority

C. are in the majority        D. is in the majority

2).The number of students in our class ___63 and the majority of them ___ clever and work hard.(C)

  1. is; is  B. are; are  C. is ; are  D. are; is

3) Young people were in the majority at the meeting. (Translate)

13. declare vt.    

用法归纳

1)to make known publicly or officially: 宣布,宣告

The chairman declared the results of the election. 主席宣布了选举的结果。

War was declared on the enemy. 已经向敌人宣战了。

The police have declared war on drug dealers in this area.警方现在已经对这个地区的毒贩宣战了.

The judge declared the thief guilty. 法官宣判 这个窃贼有罪。

2)To state with great forces so that  there is no doubt  about the meaning

 宣称,声称,断言

She solemnly declared that she knew nothing about it.  她郑重宣布她对此事一无所知。

Declare your position, please.  请表明你的立场。

She declared herself to be innocent.  她声称自己无罪。 

He declared that it was true.  他声明此事属实.

3) . To make a full statement 申报

Have you anything to declare?

联想拓展

announce  v. / n 宣布,宣告(把大家所关心的事情,特别是有新闻价值的,做一般或正式的宣布)

14. make/earn a/one’s life 谋生、习惯新的生活方式

make /earn / get a / one’s living 谋生

现在越来越多的年轻人去了城市并在那儿谋生。

Nowadays more and more young people move to cities to make a life there.

15. a large percentage have chosen…= a large percentage of Chinese-Americans have chosen… ...

1). A large percentage of population live in big cities. 很大比例的人口住在城市。

2). A large percentage of the hotel’s income comes from the visitors to the lake.  这宾馆很大比例的收入来自于游览这湖的游客。

3).Only a small percentage of students are foreigners.

特别提示

percent (用在数词后)(其余都用percentage)

(1)     The result is expressed ________________(以百分比).

(2)     _____________________    (比例越来越大)

    of the population own their own houses.

(1)     ___________________(大部分) people came.

(2)     __________________    (百分之五十的学生) came form worker’s family.

① as a percentage

② An increasing percentage

③ A large percentage of

④ 50 percent of the students

16. establish a town 建立城镇

establish a new business       开创新事业

establish friendly relations with…建立友好关系

…establish that he was right.证明他是对的。

17. immigrate vi.  (to/ into)移居,迁入

他很小时从爱尔兰移民到美国       

As a child, he immigrated to the US from Ireland.

联想拓展

immigration n.  immigration laws移民法

immigrant (s) n.  the European immigrants 欧洲移民

18.It is believed that… 据认为……

联想拓展

     It is said that …

     It is hoped that…

     It is supposed that…

     It is suggested that…

     It is reported that

主语从句,it作形式主语

It is reported that some European countries are flooded severely .

It is hoped that the cost of medical care can be cut down.

19. mix  v. 混合   n. 混合,混乱     

1). We have to come up with a mix (n. )of policies to please the voters.( 折中)

2). You can mix yellow and blue together to make green.

3). We can not mix work with pleasure.

联想拓展

 mixture n.  混合物,混合体

The drink is a mixture of 3 different sorts of drinks.  这种饮料是三种不同饮料的混合物

   a mixture of sadness and anger / water and oil  悲恨交加/ 水油混合物

vi.混合,使……结合 

1).Oil and water don’t mix

2).Oil doesn’t mix with water.

3).Tom and John mix like oil and water.

4).I got /was mixed up at first.   起初我头脑混乱。

5).He was mixed up in the scandal.(丑闻)    他被牵连到那件丑闻中。

6).Don’t get mixed up with them. 不要和他们交往(联系)。

即时活用

Success is a ___ of a sharp mind and hard training rather than just talking.

A. mixture  B. thought  C. time D. action(A)

20. nationality  n  国籍

 1). She has American nationality but lives in China. 她是美国国籍但住在中国。

  2). --- 你是哪国人?

    --- 中国人

    -- What’s your nationality?

    -- Chinese

  1. occur vi. 存在,被发现;发生;想到,想起  ~ (to),   (主语是事,宾语是人)

These flowers occur in the tropics(热带).

The sound doesn’t occur in Chinese.

When did the accident occur?

.An idea occurred to me.

It never occurred to him that she would fail.

联想拓展

       happen  vi

       take place

       come about

2. cattle  n. 集体名词,指复数概念,谓语用复数

We have five (head of) cattle.

The cattle are raised on my farm.

联想拓展

people , police, cattle, folk, militia (民兵部队)

3. Indicate vt. 指示,标出,表明,暗示

He indicated the door hinting me to go out.  他指着门示意我出去。

The signpost(路标)indicates the right road.

His hesitation indicated that he doubted about the plan.(暗示)

His red face indicates high blood pressure.(是…的征兆)

即时活用

The bell rang, ____ that class was over.

A. Indicated  B. indicating  C. indicate  D. to indicate    (B)

4. go exploring

去观光、去探险 = go sightseeing

explore探索(for)

They are exploring every possibility for the treatment of AIDS.

explore for oil.

5. apparently   adv. 显而易见地,显然地,似乎(obviously)

She sat there, apparently absent-minded.

He is apparently right. = It is apparently that he is right.

6. team up with 与…合作或一起工作 = work (together) with

You can team up with your deskmate to finish the task.

If you want to travelling, you’d better team up with a group.

这两个公司合作研发了一种新药。

The two companies teamed up to develop a new medicine.

7. hire 雇佣,租用

Hiring a car is paid by the hour.

I hired a private detective to look into it.

hire out 出租  hire oneself out (as)受雇(当…)

He hired himself out as a bodyguard in a company.

易混辨析

rent 租借(让)土地、房屋、动产等。

DO you own or rent the video?

录像带是你自己的还是租的?

He will rent this land (out) to me at $ 1000 a year.

他将把这块土地以每年1000美元的价格租给我。

8. mark out 划线标出界限,设计,计划

We marked out a tennis court.

我们划出了一块网球场。

他被选定担任更高的职务。

He was marked out for a higher position.

9. take in 包括、吸收、欺骗

即时活用

1). The price ___________(包括) the cost of all the accommodation and food.

2). The old lady was homeless, so I __________(带回家).

3). Women___________________ (经常上当)by products for losing weight.

①takes in

②took her in

③are often taken in

4). If a person is called “April Fool”, he or she is taken ___ on that day.

A. Up  B. off   C. in  D. on  (C)

10.have good idea of 对…很了解

I can’t say I have good idea of my country.

You must have some idea of  what they did.

Can you give a rough idea of what we will do?

联想拓展

have some idea of 对…知道一、二

have no idea of 不知道…

have /give a rough / general idea of 有/ 给出大致的想法

11.a great many / a good many 许多、大量的

后接名词的复数,也可接of +复数名词或代词,作主语时,谓语用复数。

I’ve read a great many books about the USA.

A good many of them have been to college.

Many a student has seen the film.

There are a great many beautiful coats in the store and I don’t know which to choose.

12. have a view of 观赏…

I have a good view of the whole city while standing on the top of the mountain.

I bought a house with a good view of the lake.(眺望)

 He often takes dark view of things. (有…看法)

He had other views for the project.(计划)

13. insert      vt. 插进,投入,嵌入

They inserted a small poet in the article.

He inserted a key in the lock and opened the door.

14.react vi.做出反应/回应

How did you react to his blame?(做出反应)

Any praise from teachers will react on students.

(影响)

Some countries now are reacting against America.(反对)

 

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