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杨吉辉英语工作室

学英语没有捷径,只有不断的努力。加油!你会成功的。

 
 
 

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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语选修8第五单元重点、难点  

2010-04-23 17:34:16|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

Unit5 Reading

1.       identify—vt 确认,识别,鉴别

(1)       How to identify the payee of a cheque ?怎样验明支票的受款人?

(2)       Why do you identify my handwriting ?你们为何要鉴定我的笔迹?

(3)       The porters may be-identified by their red caps. 从他们戴的红帽子就可辨认出他们是行李搬运工。

2)  identify sb/ sth as sb/ sth 确认、证明某人或某物系某人或某物

(1)       Can you identify the man as the murder?你确认此人是凶手吗?

(2)       He has identified the quilt as yours 他已经证明这个被子是你的被子。

3)  Identify (oneself)with sb/sth 认为某人与某人或某物有关联或等同。

(1)       That politician is closely-identified with the former government. 据认为那位政治家与前政府有非常密切的关系。

(2)       One can’t identify happiness with wealth 幸福与财富不能混为一谈。

(3)       He identifies beauty with goodness. 他认为美与善是一致的。

4)  identify with sb 理解某人,同情某人

 (1)I found it hard to identify with any of the characters in the farm. 我对这部电影里的任何角色都难以认同

  (2)The boss should identified with his or her staff. 老板应当同情并理解他(她)的员工。

(3)Reading this book, we can identify with the main character's struggle against evil. 读了这本书,我们会对主人翁反对邪恶的斗争寄予同情

   拓展:identifiable--a. 可辨认的,可证明为同一的, 可以办清的

5)  His appearance is easy to be identifiable 他的外貌是很容易辨认的。

6)  In the West, most companies have well-established and identifiable lines of organization. 在西方,大多数公司都已形成自己的明确的组织体系。

7)  A word serves a grammatical function but has no identifiable meaning单词没有可辨认的意思但充当语法功能。

Identification –nn.识别, 证实, 核对,同一, 等同, 恒等,符号, 打印,身份证

  identification card [paper] 身分证    identification lamp 标灯

identification plate 牌照            identification of friend or foe 分清敌我

under identification 在鉴别中, 证实未定Identification of Cultural Relics 文物鉴定

8)  His only means of identification was his passport. 他唯一证明身份的证件就是他的护照。

9)  Have you any identification? 你有身份证明吗?

2.       alternatives n.二中择一, 可供选择的办法, 事物adj.选择性的, 二中择一的

1)  The way was blocked, so we went by an alternative road. 这条路被挡住了,因此我们走了另一条路。

2)  I wanted to go out, but I had no money. I had no alternative to staying at home. 我想出去,可是没钱;只能待在家里。

3)  Can you recommend an alternative? 你能推荐别的选择吗?

 have no alternative but 除...外别无选择; 只有; 只好

=have no choice but to do sth=have nothing but to do sth

4)  We have no alternative but to go on. 除了继续下去,我们没有选择的余地。

5)  There was no other alternative but to fight till the victory. 除了战斗直到胜利,别无选择。

6)  Faced with two equally undesirable alternatives. 进退维谷,左右为难面临两种同样不受欢迎的选择。

7)   We were faced with two alternatives of fates . 我们面对着两种命运的决择。

8)  My deskmate was torn between the two alternatives. 我的同桌面对两种选择进退维谷不知何去何从。

9)  The way was blocked, so we had to go by alternative way 这条路已经堵塞,我们只能走其它的路

3.       come to a conclusion 得出结论,告一段落

1)I find it difficult to come to a conclusion at present . 目前我觉得难下结论。

2)We wonder why they have come to the wrong conclusion. 我们想知道他们为何得出了错误的结论。

3)He thought it over, but could come to no conclusion. 他仔细考虑了,但没能得出结论。

come to ---v. 达到, 继承, 复苏, 停止,想起,共计

come to an agreement 达成一致意见 come to term with 达成协议 come into effect 生效   come to attention采取立正姿势      come to maturity 成熟

come to perfection 达到完美地步  Come to one's senses 醒悟;苏醒

1)  When it comes to playing basketball, he is the champ. 说到打篮球,他最拿手。

2)  She has come to. 她醒过来了。

3)  His plan come to nothing 他的计划没有成功。

4.       starvation--n.饥饿; 饿死; 绝食,缺乏, 不足

1)  If we don’t get enough food ,we’ll die of starvation 如果我们找不到足够的事物,我们就会饿死饿死。

2)  It is a pity that they lived in starvation wages all the time 很遗憾他们始终得到不足温饱的工资。

3)  He suffered from starvation and disease. 他因饥饿和疾病而受苦。

4)  She is on the edge of starvation. 她快饿死了。

5)  Starvation seems to stare us in the face. 看来我们马上就要饿肚子了

5.       tentative -- adj.试验(性)的; 尝试的; 暂时[定]的,犹豫的, 无把握的, 不明确的

a tentative smile 勉强的微笑   a tentative suggestion 试探性建议

a tentative agenda 暂定议程   prices tentative 价格不固定, 暂定价

1)Drawing a tentative conclusion mightn’t be right  用以表示试探性的推断不可能正确。

2)The tentative silence means a strong storm 暂时的平静意味着强风暴的到来。

3)Our plans are only tentative. 我们的计划仅是尝试性的。

4)What is a tentative advertising appropriation? 初次广告费是多少?

5)I think we can draw up tentative plan now. :我们现在可以先拟一个临时方案。

6) I would like you to show them our tentative itinerary. 我想让你向他们介绍一下我们初步拟定的活动日程。

Make a tentative offer 作尝试性的出价(建议)

Come to a tentative conclusion 获得暂时的结论

proposal a tentative project 提出一个初步的计划。

6.       accurate--adj.准确的, 精密的; 精确的; 已校准的

1)  Can you give an accurate answer to the questions?你能给出这个问题的准确的答案吗?

2)  Is this watch which you bought accurate? 这只你买的表准吗?

3)  He is accurate at figures. 他做计算准确。

4)  No one is more accurate than he 没有人比他更精确。

accurate correct exact 均含“正确的”意思。

accurate 表示“准确的”,精确的”,指“通过努力, 使事情达到正确”,

She gave an accurate account of the accident. 她对事故做了准确的描述。

correct 为一般用语, 指“正确的”, 如:

He gave correct answers to the questions. 他对这些问题提出了正确的答案。

exact 表示“确切的”,“精确无误的”,指“与事实完全相符”, 如:

His answer is quite exact. 他的回答完全正确。

Reading

7.       interrupt--vt.中断; 截断; 阻碍,打断(别人谈话); 打扰

同义词:break in-- hinder –interfere-- intrude --stop

1)  Don’t interrupt their talk 别打断他们的谈话。

2)  Traffic in the city was interrupted by a snowstorm. 市内交通被暴风雪所阻断。

3)  Trade between the two countries was interrupted by the war. 两个的贸易因战争而中断

4)  He interrupted college to serve in the army. 他中断大学学业到军队去服役。

5)  Don't interrupt me when I am busy. 我正忙的时候请不要来打扰我。

interruption--n.中断; 遮断; 打断; 干扰,障碍物,中断期; 休止期

1)He can’t present at the meeting on time because the interruption of communication 由于交通中断他没有按时出席会议。

2)We couldn’t expect their service interruption 我们贸易料到他们的服务中断(指停电、停水等)。

3)Numerous interruptions have prevented me from finishing the work. 数不清的干扰使我未能完成这项工作。

习惯用语 without interruption 不间断地, 继续不断地

8.       acute--adj.锐的, 尖锐的,敏锐的; 敏感的; 精明的; 深刻的,明显的, 剧烈的, 短暂的, 严重的

an acute angle 锐角            acute sense 敏锐的感觉      acute pain 剧痛 

acute shortage of sth. 严重缺乏...acute disease 急性病

1)  She still has very acute hearing, though she is eighty years old. 尽管她已经八十岁了,但她的听觉仍然很灵敏。

2)  Her judgement is acute. 她的判断力很强。

acute keen sharp 意思都含“锐利的”(包括它的引伸义)意思。用于物时,

sharp 指“尖或刃”, 如:a sharp point 锐利的尖。用于人时, sharp 表示“有洞察力的, 精明的, 机警的”, 着重“狡猾”“不易受骗”,

如:You won't catch him. He's very sharp. 你骗不了他, 他精明极了。

keen 一般指“刃”, 如:a keen edge 锋刃。keen 表示人的“锐敏”、 “聪明”、 “善于思考如: He's a keen mind. 他头脑灵敏。

acute 只用于学术语中, 如:an acute angle 锐角。acute 侧重指“人观察事物的深刻性以及分辨问题的细致性。”

 如:He has given an acute analysis of the situation. 他对形势做了深刻的分析。严重的

9.       assume—vt.假定, 设想,担任; 承担; 接受,采取; 采用; 表现为, 呈(形式, 姿态, 位置)

装出, 假装,擅取, 侵占

   assume+ 名词 +(to be )or adj or 名词 以为….是……

   assume +n 假定…. , 承担

   assume +that clause 认为…..

1)      We must assume him to be innocent until he is proved guilty. 尚未证明他有罪,就得假定他是清白的。

2)      It is reasonable to assume that the economy will continue to improve.认为经济好转是有道理的。

3)      We are working on the assumption that everyone invited will turn up。我们假定了每一个都会 应邀出席并就此做出安排。

4)      We assume this to be true 我们假定这是真的。

5)      He started to assume the reins of government 他开始执政, 开始掌权。

6)      We don’t know who will assume responsibility 我们不知道谁来负责, 承担责任。

7)      He's not such a fool as you assumed him to be. 他并非你所以为的那样愚蠢。

assume a new aspect 呈现新的面貌    assume airs of 摆...架子

assume great airs 神气活现, , 摆架子 assume a new name 用新名字, 用化名

1)Assuming--adj.傲慢的;自负的

(1)  You were mistaken in assuming it. 你做这个假定是错误的。

(2) Rather previous in assuming I am going to pay? 你以为我会付款未免太自作聪明了吧?

2)assuming 放在句首,不是一种推测

(2)    Assuming it rains tomorrow morning , what shall we do ?如果明天早上天下雨,我们该做什么呢?

(3)    Assuming the house is for sale, would you buy it? 假如那座房子出售,你要买吗?

(4)    Assuming it to be true, what should we do now?  假定这是真的,我们现在该怎麽办?

10.   regardless-- adj.不注意的, 不留心的, 不重视的, 不考虑的

  regardless of 不管[顾], 不注意

1)  He says what he thinks, regardless of other people's feelings. 他怎么想就怎么说,不考虑别人的情绪。

2)  He is never regardless of the result. 他从来不顾虑结果。

3)  I protested, but she carried on regardless. 我极力反对,但她置之不理仍一意孤行。

4)  They decorated the house regardless of the cost. 他们不计费用多少,把房屋装修一新。

5)  He is regardless of what others say 他不在乎别人说什么。

 同义词或词组:disregarding—in spite of ----despite不管;不顾,

1)He carried the project through despite the difficulty.他不顾困难,完成了这项计划。

2)Disregarding all difficulties, we succeeded in bringing them around in the end." "我们不顾一切困难,终于说服了他们。"

3)If you persist in disregarding my advice, I shall wash my hands of the whole business. 如果你固执不听我的劝告的话,这个生意我就不过问了

4)They went in spite of the rain. 他们不顾天下雨也去了。

5)She smiled in spite of herself. 她不禁微笑起来

但despite 还有“尽管,不论”

6)  Despite the bad weather we enjoyed our holiday. 尽管天气不好,我们的假期仍过得很愉快。

7)  He followed on despite every difficulty. 尽管遇到种种困难,他仍继续前进。

8)  He remains modest despite his achievements. 他虽然有成就还是很谦虚。

9)  She come in spite of her cold. 她虽然着凉还是来了。

11.   preserve--vt.保护; 维护,维持; 支持,保管, 保存, 保藏, 使(某人名字)流传; 把(某人)铭记在心; 使(诗歌等)留存

1)  Efforts to preserve the peace have failed

2)  The calm courage of the pilot preserved the lives of the passengers.飞行员临危不惧的勇气保住了乘客们的生命。

3)  You look well preserved. 你看起来保养得很好。

4)  Ice helps to preserve food. 冰有助于保存食物。

5)  It is one of the duties of the police to preserve public order. 警察的职责之一是维持公共秩序。

12.   primitive adj.原始的, 远古的; 初期的, 最早的,简单的; 幼稚的; 自然的; 纯朴的,粗糙的; 未开化的,原来的, 基本的, 非派生的,未经正式训练的, 自学的,

primitive advance 原始垫款     primitive colours ( =primary colours) 原色

primitive painter 自学成名的画家 primitive people [culture] 原始人[文化]

primitive society 原始社会[公社]  primitive soil 生荒地

1)  He lives a primitive life. 他过着艰苦的生活。

2)  Primitive man made tools from sharp stones and animal bones. 原始人用尖石块和动物的骨制造工具。

3)  The native of that region still live in primitive straw huts. 那个地区的居民依然住在古老的茅草屋里。

4)  Small seashells were once used as a primitive kind of money. 小贝壳曾经被用作简单的钱币。

13. remove -- vt.移动,脱掉; 去掉; 摘下; 消除;,使离开(某处); 调动; 免职, 开除,暗杀

remove one's shoes [coat] 脱鞋[上衣]  remove all doubts 消除一切怀疑

remove the cloth from the table 把桌上的桌布拿走

remove soldiers to the front 调兵上前线

remove a man from office 免除一人的职务

习惯用语 :at one remove 隔一代(之嫡亲)  be removed from 与...远离; 与...疏远的;

be removed from school 被开除, 被勒令退学 but [only] one [a] remove from 与... 相隔不远(指程度或来亲属关系)   remove oneself 走开, 离去

15.ripen –v 成熟,使成熟

1)The crops will not be ready for harvesting until we have had some sunshine to ripen them. 直到阳光充足使作物成熟时,我们才准备收割。

2)The pears will sweeten as they ripen. 梨子成熟了会变甜。

3)We are waiting for the first crops to ripen. 我们正等待着第一次农作物的成熟。

4)These experiences make him ripen。这些经验使他变得老练。

16. messy--adj.污秽的, 肮脏的, 零乱的, 棘手的; 麻烦

1)It's a messy business having a tooth taken out. 拔牙会弄得人很脏。

2)It’s a messy situation for us那对我们来说是难以对付的局面。

3)I can't find anything on this messy desk. 在这张堆放得乱七八糟的桌子上我什么也找不到。

4)She found herself in a messy spot. 她发现自己陷入了窘境。

17.keep out 使….在外,使….留在外面

  Keep out of –vt 置身于….之外,对….不接近;避免(麻烦等),为了不卷入….

1)Keep the strangers out 不让陌生人进来

2)Tell them keep out of mischief. 告诉他们不要再捣蛋了。

3)Keep out of sight! 别让我再看见你!

4)He decided to keep out of a quarrel 他决定不介入争吵。

5)Please keep out of my room. 在英语方面我赶不上他。

6)The trees keep out the wind. 这些树可以挡风。

7)Try to keep out of trouble. 尽量别卷入麻烦中去。

18. at most 最多,至多

1)He has at most ten books. 他至多不过十本书。

2) Most people keep Christmas at home. 大多数人在家庆祝圣诞节。

3) I smoke most at times when I'm most relaxed. 在我最放松的时候,我抽烟最凶了。

4) We spend at most $20 on the lunch. 我们午餐至多花二十美元。

5)I am most unhappy at his boastfulness. 我对他的大言不惭很不高兴。

at the very most至多,充其量不超过  at the most 最多,不超过,充其量

make the most of尽量利用,充分利用  get the most out of最有效的使用,发挥...最大功效

1)  We must make the most of the fine weather. 我们要充分利用这样的好天气。

2)  We should make the most of the opportunity. 我们应充分利用这一机遇。

3)  We should make the most of our time. 我们应该充分利用时间。

4)  .If you seriously wish to get the most out of college, you must put the time message into practice. 如果你真心想充分利用大学时光,你就应该把利用时间的要旨付诸实施。

at least最少,至少

1)  At least I think so. 至少我认为是如此。

2)  He comes to see use at least twice a week. 他一周至少两次来看望我们。

3)  It appears so, at least. 至少给人的印象是这样。

4)  We have been waiting for you at least an hour. 我们等你至少等了一小时。

5)  You might at least answer the questions we offered 你不管怎样该给我们所提出的问题个答复。

6)  You might at least apologize. 你至少应该道个歉吧。

19.cut up 切碎,剁碎 cut off 切断,中断,cut down 砍到,消减,缩小

  cut through 剪断,开辟(出路或通道)cut in (on sb/ sth) 打断,打搅,插嘴

  cut out 裁剪,剪下

1)      He cut up vegetables using a knife 他用小刀把蔬菜切碎。

2)  The doctor told hi m to cut down on his drinking .医生劝他少喝酒

3) She kept cutting in on our conversation 我们谈话时,她老是插嘴

4) Operator,I have just been out cut off.话务员,线路断了。

5) I cut this article out of the newspaper 我从报纸上剪下这篇文章。

1 accuracy  n.

    accurate   adj. 准确的,精确的

 2 sharpen  vt.  使锋利,尖锐;使强烈

 The knife needs sharpening.

 The tone of his letters has sharpened recently.

 sharp  adj.锋利的,尖锐的; 急转的,陡峭; 突然的,急剧

 a sharp turn   急转弯

 a sharp increase  急剧增加

 3 specific  adj.   具体的;特有的

The problem with her is that she never has a specific aim in life.  

 specifically  adv.   具体地,特别的

You are specifically warned not to eat fish.

4. Somehow  以…方式;不知怎么地;莫名其妙地

Somehow he was afraid of her.

  anyhow  无论如何,不管怎样

It may snow, but anyhow I will go to town.

5. applaud: v. 赞赏, 鼓掌向(某人或某物)

      表示赞赏, 尤指鼓掌欢呼

         Everyone applauded when the play ended.

         All people present applauded her success.

   

         I applaud your decision.

         我赞成你的决定。

6. accelerate   

       . 加速, 加快,促进

           他决定加快他的课程进度。

           He decided to accelerate his courses.

7. arrest: 逮捕,吸引

The criminal was arrested yesterday.

 arrest sb for 因…逮捕某人

 arrest one’s attention  引起…的注意力

 attract one’s attention

 draw one’s attention

8. relief  n.减轻或解除

I felt great relief when I heard I had passed the examination.

 to one’s relief   令…放心的是,令…感到宽慰的是

Much to his relief, finally his lost son was found by the police.

      to one’s surprise

      to one’s delight

9.  patient  adj. n.  耐心的; 病人

 be patient with   对…有耐心的

 patience n.   耐心,忍耐

To become a nurse, one of the qualifications needed is patience.

10. skilful 熟练的,有技巧的

 a skilful driver 

 be skilful at  (doing)  sth 对…熟练

If only it could be just like last year.

     要是能像去年那样就好了!

We have been excavating here for many years.

现在完成进行时

由“助动词 have (has) + been + doing”构成

表示从过去某时开始一直延续到说话时还在进行,或可能还要继续下去的动作。它通常和“for+段时间”或“since+点时间(也可以是从句)”的时间状语连用。

I have been waiting for a letter from my parents. 我一直在等我父母的来信。

It has been raining for three hours. 

雨已经下了三个小时了。

We have been studying here since 2004.

自从2004年以来,我们一直在这里学习。

2. 表示从过去某时开始,一直延续到说话时刻,可能刚刚结束的动作。例如:

She has been sweeping the street all day. She is too tired.

她一整天都在扫大街。她太累了。

We have been waiting for you for two hours. We don't want to wait any longer.

我们已经等你两个小时了。不想再等了。

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