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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语必修5第二单元重点、难点  

2011-10-22 22:17:40|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit Two  The United Kingdom

1. How many countries does the UK consist of? 英联合王国由几个国家组成?

关键透析

consist of 由……组成,由……构成。

Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

英国由英格兰、苏格兰、爱尔兰和威尔士组成             

用consist of时,整体在前,个体在后,句子用主动。

易混辨析:

make up; make up of 和consist of都表示“组成;构成”。

make up

   用法归纳:

  (1)编造

   Can you make up a sentence with “make up”? 你能用make up造个句子吗?

   Don’t make up an excuse to me. 别对我编借口。

  (2)组成;构成

        England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales make up Great Britain.

英格兰、苏格兰、爱尔兰和威尔士组成大不列颠。

Fifty students make up our class. 五十个学生组成我们班。

易混辨析:

make up; make up of 和consist of都表示“组成;构成”。

用make up时,个体在前,整体在后,句子用主动。

用make up of时,整体在前;个体在后,句子用被动。

Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

英国由英格兰、苏格兰、爱尔兰和威尔士组成

用consist of时,整体在前,个体在后,句子用主动。

Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

英国由英格兰、苏格兰、爱尔兰和威尔士组成       

  (3)弥补

Students must make up the lesson they missed. 学生们应该把落下的课补上。

  (4)化妆;打扮

    You have only ten minutes to make up. 你只有十分钟打扮。

联想扩展:

(1) make of +材料   由…制成  (能看出材料或者是物理变化)

 This desk is made of wood. 这张桌子是木头做的。

  (2)make from +材料  由…制成  (看不出材料或者是化学变化)

Paper is made from wood. 纸是木头造的。

  (3)make into +成品  制成…

You can make this piece of wood into a desk. 你可以把这块木头做成一个桌子。

  (4)make out of… 由…制成

The boy’s coat is made out of his father’s. 那个男孩的大衣是由他爸爸的大衣改成的。

  (5)make up for 弥补

You can’t make up the time lost. 丢失的时间是不能弥补的。

make a face / faces 做鬼脸;扮苦相   make a fool of 捉弄  make fun of 取笑  make the most of 充分利用  make the best of充分利用  make out 明白;理解;  书写;开列 make a noise 吵闹  make sure  确保make a contribution to 对…做贡献  make a mistake 出差错 make up of 由…组成 make it 办成;做到;成功;赶上 make of 理解;由…制造 make up to 接近;巴结;向…求婚 make up for 弥补 make over 把(财产)转让  make away 离去;逃走  make away with 携…而逃;浪费 make for 走向;冲向 make off with携…而逃make down 改小(衣服) make out of 用…制造

即时活用:

1、This kind of cloth is made______ cotton and this kind of wine is made ______rice.

      A. of; of      B. from; from      C. of; from      D. from; of

  答案:C

2、Peter’s coat is made ______ silk while his brother’s is made ______ his father’s.

A. of; out of     B. from; up of    C. out of; out of    D. out of; from

      答案:A

    3、Those who didn’t work hard in the past are determined to______ for the lost time.

      A. make up    B. make out    C. make ends meet    D. make belief

      答案:A

    4、The judging committee (评委会) ______ three women and four men.

A. is consisted of     B. makes up    C. consists of    D. is make up

       答案:C

联想拓展

consist of =be composed of =be made of  由……组成,由……构成

consist in=lie in  在于……

consist with=agree with  与……一致

2、England can be divided into three main areas. 英国可以被分为三个主要区域。

   divide 表示“把一个整体分成多少份”。

      A. divide … into  把…分成几份

        The teacher divided the class into four groups. 老是把整个班级分成了四组。

      B. divide…in half  把…一分为二

        Divide the apple and share it with your brother. 把苹果切开,和弟弟分吃了。

      C. divide…by   除

        If you divide thirty by five, you can get six. 如果你用30除5,就会得到6.

    separate 表示“把两个相连或相邻的物体分开”。 句型为:separate A from B.

     The Cook Strait separates the North Island from the South Island.

     库克海峡把北岛和南岛分开。

    特别提示:

 1. separate 的被动式为:A be separated from B by…

   Asia is separated from Europe by the Urals.亚洲和欧洲被乌拉尔山脉分开。

 2. 几除以几等于多少 用  What is + 数次 divided by + 数次?

   What is thirty divided by five? 三十除以五得几?

3、You can clarify this question if you study British history.

如果你学习英国历史,你就能分清这个问题。

clarify vt. 使清楚;澄清

The explanation in the note clarified the difficult sentence.

笔记里的解释能使这个句子清晰。

He clarified his stand on the issue.

他澄清了他在这个问题上的立场。

4、Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well.

   现在当人们提到英国时你会发现也包括威尔士。

   refer to

   用法归纳:

1、  查阅;参阅

Please refer to the last page of the book for answers.

请在书的最后一页找答案。

If you don’t know the meaning of a word, you can refer to a dictionary.

如果你不懂某个字的意思,你可以查字典。

2、  指的是

When I say some students are stupid, I am not referring to you.

当我说有些学生很傻时,我不是指你。

Do you refer to me by saying that?

你那样说是不是指我?

3、  适用于

This rule refers to everyone.

这个规定适用于每个人。

What I have said refers to all of you.

我说的适用于你们所有人。

4、  提到;谈到

Does he refer to me in his letter?

他在信里提到我了吗?

Don’t refer to the matter again.

别再提那件事。

5、  归功于;归咎于

He referred his success to the good teaching he has had.

他把他的成功归功于他所受的良好教育。

Some people refer all the troubles to bad luck.

有些人把所有麻烦归咎于不幸。

6、把…称作(refer to …as…)

We refer to our teacher as our friend.

我们把老师当朋友。

5、Happily this was accomplished without conflict when King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well.

   幸运的是,当苏格兰的詹姆士国王也成为了英格兰和威尔士的国王时,这个问题在没有任何冲突的情况下解决了。

   accomplish

   易混辨析:

achieve, complete, finish 和accomplish   完成

achieve 指完成伟大事业。

complete 强调使某物完善完整。

finish 强调事情的终结。

accomplish 指成功地完成预期的计划、任务等。

6、However, the southern part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government.

然而,爱尔兰的南部不愿意组建联合王国,它分离出去并建立了自己的政府。

break away

用法归纳:

1、突然逃掉或离开

The thief broke away from the two policemen.

小偷从两个警察的手里逃脱。

It is not right for Taiwan to break away from the mainland.

台湾脱离大陆是不对的。

2、断绝往来;脱离

You should break away from all your old friends.

你应该和所有老朋友断绝往来。

He tried to break away from me.

他试图摆脱我。

3、改掉

I want to break away from smoking.

我想戒烟。

It is difficult to break away from a habit.

改掉一个习惯不容易。

7、To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg, the currency and international relations), but they still have very different institutions.

   值得赞扬的是,这四个国家的确在一些方面共同合作,例如货币和国际关系方面;但是有些制度仍然区别很大。

credit

用法归纳:

   (1)相信

We gave credit to his story.

我们相信他的故事。

   (2)荣誉;好评 

He gained a lot of credit from that good deed.

做了那件好事以后,他获得了许多荣誉。

   (3)信贷 

The bank refused further credit to the company.

银行拒绝了那个公司进一步的贷款。

   (4)分期付款 

No credit is given at this shop.

这个商店没有分期付款。

联想扩展:

   add to one’s credit增加荣誉  be a credit to 给…争光 on credit赊 lend credit to使更可信

   to one’s credit 属于某人;使某人感到光荣 

   It is to your credit that you have passed the exam.

   Greatly to his credit that he came out first.

8、which country is left out? 把那个国家遗漏了?

   leave out

   用法归纳:

   1、漏掉;遗漏

   You have left some figures in your calculations.

   你的计算中漏了几个数字。

   She left out an important detail in her account.

   她在叙述中漏掉了一个重要细节。

   2、删掉;没用

   Please leave out some software.

   请删掉一些软件。

   联想扩展:

   leave alone 别管;别惹   leave behind 留下   leave go放开   leave it at that 算了

   leave off 停止;脱掉;关上   leave on 让…开着;穿着不脱   leave over 遗留

   leave to chance 碰运气   leave word 留下话

9、take the place of 代替;接替

   Electric trains have taken the place of steam trains.

   电气火车已经代替了蒸汽火车。

   Who is taking my place?

   谁来接替我的工作?

   联想扩展:

   1、take place 发生

   2、take one’s place  就坐;站好位置

   Take your places please, we are about to start.

   请就坐,我们马上要开始了。

   3、give place to 让位给;把座位让给

   Old methods must give place to new.

   老方法应该让位给新方法。

   4、in place 放在适当的地方;适当的

   I like everything to be in place at home.

   我喜欢家里一切井井有条。

   5、in place of 代替;用…而不用

   The Chinese use chopsticks in place of knives and forks.

   中国人用筷子而不用刀叉。

   6、out of place 不恰当;不协调;不相称

   Your remarks were rather out of place.

   你的评论不恰当。

10、Pingyu heard the famous sound of the clock, Big Ben, ringing out the hour.

   平玉听到了那个著名的钟声,大班钟在报时。

   ring out 发出响声;响起

   A shot rang out in the night.

   夜晚响起一声枪声。

   The bell rang out.

   铃响了。

   联想扩展:

   ring back 回电话  ring in敲钟迎新年  ring off挂电话  ring up给…打电话 

11、settle(1)解决;处理  (2)结/付账  (3)定居  (4)安定下来  (5)把…安顿好

12、世纪和年代的表示

13、be proud of… = take pride in…

14、light

15、过去分词

    作宾语补足语

    过去分词可在下列动词后作宾语补足语:see, hear, notice, watch, keep, find, get, have, feel等。如:

    The effort to get my plan finished has tired me out.完成计划的努力使得我精疲力尽。

    I intended to have my daughters educated in England.我想让女儿们到英国去受教育。

16、way,  means; manner 和 method

 way “方式,方法,手段“。概念广泛,即可指具体办法,也可指抽象的方法:既可指一般的方法,也可指个人的独特方法。way作定语从句的先行词时,定语从句可用in which / that 或不用引导词。in no way “决不”。介词用in。

means “方法,手段,工具”。指与“目的”相对立而存在的“手段”,尤其指采用整套方法。也可指使用某些工具、材料、坐交通工具等。介词用by。By all means 无论如何;by no means 一点也不。

manner “方式,方法”。与way差别不大,都和in连用。较正式,多指具体人的独特行事方式,处理问题的特殊方式。

method 指理论的或系统的方法。

       He always speaks in a careful way.

       We tried every possible means to get it finished.

       The young teacher invented a new method of teaching.

17、elect, select 和 choose

They elected a new mayor.

We choose / elect / make him our monitor.

Please select a few nice apples for mother.

18. “Please don’t hurt my cat,” begged Sarah as her brother picked it up by one leg.

当他哥哥拎着猫的一条腿时,萨拉乞求道:“不要伤害我的猫。”

pick up 意为“拎着”

用法归纳

(1) 捡起、拾起

He picked up a stone and threw it at the dog.

他捡起石头朝那只狗扔去。

(2)(用车)接送

My father will pick me up after school.

放学后,父亲将用车接我。

(3)收到(信号)

We picked up radio signals for help from that damaged boat.

我们收到了来自受损船只求助的信号。

(4)学到、获得

I picked up a little English during communicating with foreign teachers.

在与外教的交流中,我学到了一些英语。

(5)收拾、整理

Please pick up all your books when you’ve finished reading them.

读完书后,请整理好它们。

19.On my way to the station my car broke down.

在去车站的路上,我的车抛锚了。

broke down(机器)停止运转

用法归纳

(1) (车)抛锚

My car broke down on the high way.

我的车在高速路上抛锚了。

(2)分解

Salt and sugar are broken down in the stomach.

盐和糖在胃里分解了。

(3)(身体)垮掉

Her body broke down as a result of heavy pressure of work.

由于工作的压力,她的身体垮掉了。

(4)破裂

Negotiations between the two sides have broken down.

双方的谈判已经破裂了。

 

 

 

 

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