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杨吉辉英语工作室

学英语没有捷径,只有不断的努力。加油!你会成功的。

 
 
 

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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语必修5第三单元重点、难点  

2011-10-22 22:19:40|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
 

Unit Three  Life in the Future

1、I still cannot believe that I am taking up this prize that I won last year.

我还是无法相信我是在接受去年赢得的这个奖励。

关键透析

take up 在此句中意为“接受”。

用法归纳

(1)占据时间、空间

Reading this novel took up most of my spare time.

读这部小说占去了我大部分空闲时间。

(2)开始从事

My father took up football when he was only ten years old.

十岁时,父亲开始踢球。

(3)拿起、举起

He took up his book and hurried out.

他拿起书匆忙出去了。

(4)欣然接受

She took up his offer of a meal.

他请她吃饭,她接受了。

2、I have to remind myself constantly that I am really in AD 3008.

   我得不断提醒自己我真的到公元3008年了。

   remind

    用法归纳:

   (1)remind sb. about sth. 提醒某人某事

Please remind me about the meeting this afternoon. 请提醒我下午的会议。

Can you remind me about the time of the train? 能提醒我火车时间吗?

(2)remind sb. of sth.  使某人想起

 The boy’s story reminded me of my childhood. 那个孩子的经历使我想起了我的童年。

 What he said reminded me of my unfinished work. 他的话使我想起了我还没有做完的工作。

(3)remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事

 Please remind me to get up at seven tomorrow morning. 明天早上七点叫我。

 Remind him to post the letter. 提醒他发信。

(4)remind sb. of doing sth..提醒某人已做过某事

 Thank you for reminding me of giving back the money to you.

 谢谢你提醒我给你还过钱了。

3、Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.

   由于担心旅程,一开始的几天我心里不踏实。

   Worried 为过去分词作状语。

   过去分词作状语说明动作发生的背景或情况。过去分词作状语和主句的主语为逻辑上的动宾关系或主表关系。如:

Greatly moved by his words, we made up our minds to study harder.

被他的话深深地感动了,我们决心更努力地学习。

Seen from the hill,the park looks more beautiful.

从山顶上看,公园更漂亮。

特别提示:

同学们还应该特别注意“假被动”

以下 be+过去分词+介词 结构(假被动)成为高考的热点,常见的短语如下:

be concerned with  涉及…… 关于……    be deeply concerned about   对…… 深感关切

be engaged in     从事…;忙于…          be located in      位于……

be faced with      面对……            be attached to      附属于;对……依恋

be satisfied with   对……满意           be crowded with   挤满了……

 be surprised at    对……感到惊讶       be devoted to      忠诚于……

be lost in        沉湎于……            be absorbed in    专心于……    

be buried in      埋头于……           be tired of        厌倦了……

be equipped with  配备着,具备……     be filled with      装满……

be dressed as     打 / 装扮成……       be dressed in      穿着……

be tired out        很累                be well-prepared for 为……做好充分的准备

 be exhausted by   因……而筋疲力尽    be seated          坐着

be compared with  与……相比           be affected by     受到……的影响 被打动/感动

be accustomed to   习惯于……          be exposed to      暴露于……之中

be/get used to      习惯于……          be addicted to      对……上瘾

be distinguished for 因……而有名        be armed with      手里拿着…… 手持……

be moved by…被…感动                 be interested in     对…感兴趣

注意:以上结构如果有主语,be动词出现;如果没主语,be动词不出现,直接用过去分词作状语。(常翻译为“由于”)如:

Interested in English, he studies it day and night.

由于对英语感兴趣,他不分昼夜学英语。

Moved by his words, we decided to study harder.

被他的话感动,我们决定更加努力学习。

4、The air seemed thin, as though its combination of gases had little oxygen left.

空气似乎很稀薄,似乎它的混合气体中剩下的氧气很少。

as though引导方式状语从句,意为“似乎、好像”。

We felt as though we had witnessed the whole thing.

我们感到仿佛目击了整个这件事似的。

as though(=)as if

用法归纳

(1)引导方式状语从句

The old machine operates as if it were a new one.

这台旧机器操作起来就像新的一样。

(2)引导表语从句

It looks as if it is going to rain.

天似乎要下雨。

(3)as if后可接to do

He raised his hand as though to say something.

他举起手好像要说什么。

特别提示

从属连词as if,as though多表示一种假设,因此从句中的谓语动词常用虚拟语气。

He treats me as though I were a stranger.  他待我犹如陌生人。

5、Just at that moment I had a “time lag” flashback and saw the area again as it had been in the year AD 2008.

就是在那时,我有了一次“时间逆转”的闪回,再次看到了公元2008年时的那的地区。

关键透析

as it had been in the year AD 2008,为定于从句,修饰先行词area。

用法归纳

as作连词引导从句:

(1)引导定语从句

As we all know, the earth travels around the sun.

众所周之,地球绕着太阳转。

(2)引导让步状语从句

Boy as he is, he knows so much about the world.

尽管他是个小孩,但他通晓很多事情。

(3)引导方式状语

She stayed in bed as the doctor had ordered.

她依照医生的吩咐卧床休息。

(4)引导时间状语从句

As time went by, we knew more and more about ourselves.

随着时间的退移,我们对自己的了解越来越深。

As I was getting on the bus, someone called me.

我上公共汽车时,有人叫我。

特别提示                                                                                                                            

as引导的让步状语从句,需要倒装。这是高考命题中的一个重点和热点。

Child as he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.  尽管他是个孩子,他却懂得应该做什么。(Child前无冠词)

6、At first my new surroundings were difficult to tolerate.

开始时新的环境让我很难忍受。

关键透析

to tolerate是不定式短语,作方面状语,其逻辑宾语是my new surroundings. 如:

The air on Mars is hard to breathe. 火星上的空气难以呼吸。

用法归纳

tolerate

(1)容许、允许

This kind of behavior will not be tolerated.

这种行为是不能被容许的。

The school can’t tolerate cheating on exams.

The teacher won’t tolerate any disorder.

 (2)忍受、容忍(bear=put up with=stand)

I don’t know how you tolerate that noise.

我不知道你怎么能忍受那样的噪音。

How can you tolerate that rude fellow?

你怎么能忍受那个无理的家伙?

(3)耐得住、经受住

Few plants will tolerate sudden changes in temperature.

少数的植物能经受住温度的突然变化。

7、Hit by a lack of fresh air, my head ached.

   由于缺乏新鲜空气,我感到头痛。

   lack 缺乏;没有

   I lack the courage to do it. 我没有勇气做那事。

   I don’t seem to lack anything. 我什么也不缺。

   ※ be lacking 缺…

      Good food was lacking. 好食品很缺乏。

   ※ be lacking in  缺乏;不够

      She was lacking in wisdom. 她缺乏智慧。

      He seems to be lacking in common sense. 他视乎不懂常识。

8、However, lost sight of Wang Ping when we reached what looked like a large market because too many carriages flying all directions.

   可是,当我们到达一个看上去像大市场的地方时,由于太多车子朝四面八方飞奔,我看不见王平了。

   sight n

   (1)目光,视力

   My sight is good. 我的视力不错。

   Wearing glasses will help poor sight. 戴眼镜可以帮助弱视。

  (2)视野

    Never let the baby out of your sight for a moment. 一会儿也不能让孩子离开你的视野。

    I watched him until he disappear from sight in the distance. 我目送他直到他在远处出了我的视野。

   (3)情景,景象

    The fire was a frightening sight. 那场火是个可怕的情景。

    That garden is the most beautiful sight I have ever seen. 那个花园是我所看到的最美的景色。

   含sight的词组

at first sight 看第一眼;乍一看  catch / have sight of 看见  lose sight of 看不见  at the sight of 在看到…时   in the sight of 在...看来  keep sight of 使能看到 in / within sight 在视线内  out of sight 看不见

9、He was swept up into the center of them.

  他被卷入到这群车队中去了。

   sweep up 打扫干净;收拾干净

   Did you sweep up all the broken glass?

   你把碎玻璃扫干净了吗?

   Don’t leave me to sweep up after the party.

   聚会后别留下我一个人打扫。

   联想扩展:

   sweep

   1、扫

   My mother sweeps the kitchen every day.

   我妈妈每天扫厨房。

   The floor has been swept clean.

   地已经扫干净了。

   2、把…放到;使进入

   He swept the papers into his case.

   他把文件放进包里。

   Wind swept the leaves from the sidewalk.

   风把人行道上的树叶吹走了。

   3、(目光)扫视;扫过

   His eyes swept the sky, searching for signs of rain.

   他的目光在天空扫过,寻找下雨的迹象。

   She looked anxiously for him, her eyes sweeping the room.

   她目光扫视整个房子,焦虑的寻找他。

   4、横扫

   The storm swept the country.

   暴风雨横扫整个国家。

   联想扩展:

   sweep away 刮走;清除掉  sweep out 打扫干净  sweep over 从…上面过去

10、Arriving at a strange-looking house, he showed me into a large, bright clean room.

   到了一幢看上去很奇怪的房子里,他把握带到一个明亮而清洁的大房间。

   show 展示

    用法归纳

(1)    show sth. to sb. = show sb. sth..  给某人看/展示某物

 Can you please show me your new mobile phone?

 能让我看看你的新手机吗?

(2)    be on show / on show  展出

 The new type of computer will be on show next month.

 新型计算机将在下月展出。

   The things on show here are all from the tang Dynasty.

   这里展出的东西都是唐朝的。

(3)    show off  展示;炫耀;说明

   You should show yourself off when looking for a job.

   找工作时你应该充分展示你自己。

(4)    show sb. around + 地点   带某人参观某地

Shown around the library, we were led to th lab.

被带着参观完图书馆,我们又被带到了实验室。

(5)    show sb. in / out   把某人迎进来/ 送出去

Wait a minute, sir. Let me show you out.

等会儿,先生,让我送您出去。

(6)    show sb. to +地点   带某人去某地

Boy, please show this gentleman to his room.

孩子,请带这位先生去他的房间。

(7)    show + clause  说明;表明

Statistics shows that China’s economy is increasing very fast.

统计数字显示中国经济增长迅速。

          即时活用:

          1、At first the headmaster showed us ______ the campus.

             A. around      B. about      C. above     D. over

             答案:A

         2、– I waited for two hours.

            --- When did she_________?

            A. show off     B. show up     C. show on     D. show about

           答案:B

         3、Can you make a sentence to _____ the meaning of the phrase?
            A. show off  B. turn out C. bring out D. take in
           答案:A

         4、_________several times, but he still doesn’t know how to do it properly.

A. Being shown        B. Having shown 

C. Having been shown     D. I’ve shown him

            答案:D

11、I found later that their leaves provided the room with much-needed oxygen.

后来我才发现,就是这些树的叶子为这栋房屋提供了最急需的氧气。

provide vt. & vi.

   用法归纳:

  (1)提供

   The trees provide shade. 树提供阴凉。

   表示“给…提供…”用“provide sth. for sb.”。

   Schools provide text-books for students. 学校为学生提供教科书。

  (2)规定

   School rules provide that students mustn’t smoke. 校规规定学生们不能吸烟。

   联想扩展:

   provide against 预防

   We all should provide against the spread of H1N1 flu. 我们都应该预防甲型流感的传播。

   provide for 养活;做准备

   He works day and night to provide for his family. 他不分昼夜的工作养活家人。

   provide…with 给…提供

   His firm is good and provides him with a car. 他的公司不错,给他提供了一辆车。

   provided / providing conj. 如果…话;只要

   Provided that it will snow tomorrow, we will put off the sports meeting.

   如果明天下雪,我们就推迟运动会。

   特别提示:

   provided和providing都用于作状语。provided多用于正式文体;providing多用于口语。

   即时活用:

   1、They live on their small farm ____ the family with corn.

A. providing to   B. provided   C. providing   D. provided to

      答案:C

   2、As we all know, two thirds of the earth’s surface is water, ___ a lot of fish.

A. provided    B. providing   C. which provides   D. it provides

      答案:B

12、Tomorrow, you’ll be ready for some visits. 明天你还要准备参观几个地方。

    表示“准备”的几个句型

    用法归纳

   (1)get ready for sth. 为…做准备  (表示过程)

      The students are getting ready for the entrance exams.

      学生们正在为考试做准备。

(2) get ready to do sth. 准备好做某事

  We have got ready to start. 我们已经准备好开始了。

(3) be ready for sth.  为…做好了准备(表示结果)

  Are you ready for the dictation? 你们准备好听写了吗?

(4) be ready to do

  A. 准备好做某事 = get ready to do sth.

     We are ready to go wherever we are needed. 我们准备好了去任何需要我们的地方。

  B. 乐于做某事

    Chen Guanbiao is always ready to help others. 陈光标总是乐于帮助别人。

(5) prepare 准备;烹饪

  Mother is preparing supper in the kitchen. 妈妈正在厨房做晚饭。

(6) prepare for 准备

  Mother bought some vegetables to prepare for supper

  妈妈买了些菜为晚饭做准备。

(7) prepare oneself for 为…把自己准备好

 We should study hard to prepare ourselves for the future.

 我们应该努力学习为了将来把自己准备好。

联想扩展:

“乐于做某事”还可用 be willing to do sth. 或be content to do sth. 表达。

特别提示:

prepare表示“准备”时距离目标近。prepare for 表示“准备”时距离目标远。

My mother often prepares for her lessons at night, but I know some teachers prepare their lessons just before their classes.

妈妈通常在晚上备课,但我知道有些老师上课前才备课。

13、Having said this, he spread some food on the table, and produced a bed from the floor.

说完这些,他把食物摆在桌子上,又从地板下取出一张床来。

spread v.

   用法归纳:

  (1)传播;传开(vi.)

   Bad news spreads quickly. 坏消息传的很快。

   Word spread that there was a variant virus of H1N1. 消息称H1N1病毒已经产生变异。

  (2)铺开;展开(vt.)

   The bird spread its wings and was about to fly. 鸟伸开翅膀准备要飞。

   She spread a new sheet over the bed. 她给床上铺了一个新床单。

  (3)涂;抹(vt.)

   Please spread the paint evenly. 把油漆抹均匀。

   It’s better for you to spread the honey on the bread. 你最好把蜂蜜抹在面包上。

  (4)伸展;延伸(vi.)

   Xi’an is spreading to the north and the west. 西安正在向北向西延伸。

   The forest spreads from here to the foot of Qinling mountains. 森林从这儿延伸到秦岭山脚下。

   联想扩展:

   spread out 伸开;散开;铺开  spread over 覆盖一片;持续  spread with 在…上涂抹

14、Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep. 精疲力竭,我钻到床里很快就睡着了。

   slide into…不自觉地陷入

   It’s too easy to slide into bad habit. 不自觉地陷入坏习惯是很容易的。

   The father is sad to see his son sliding into evil ways. 父亲很悲伤的看到儿子滑向深渊。

   联想扩展:

(1)       let…slide 听其自然;不予理睬

Let’s let the matter slide for the moment. 咱们这会儿先不要管这件事情。

(2)       slide over/ round /around 一语带过;不认真讨论

He slid over the question without answering it. 他把那个问题一语带过没有回答。

15、You place the metal band over your head,….  你把金属圈套在你头上,…

    place v.

(1) 放在某处

He placed the book on the desk. 他把书放在桌子上。

Isn’t that picture placed too high on the wall? 墙上那幅画挂的太高了。

(2) 安排工作、住处

I will place you in charge. 我讲安排你来负责。

The child was placed in an orphanage. 那个孩子被安排在了孤儿院。

(3) 评为第几名

He was originally placed first, but after a complaint he was placed second.

他本来被评为第一名,但有人控告,他被评为第二名。

My horse wasn’t even placed. 我的马没排上名次。

(4) place an order订货

I placed an order with them for some running shoes. 我在他们那儿定了一些跑鞋。

I have placed an order for a book in the bookstore. 我在那个书店定了一本书。

(5) 认出;记清是谁

He is a difficult man to place. 他是个很难记住的人。

She knew his face but couldn’t place him. 她认识他的脸,但就是记不起他是谁。

16、can→be able to

   can和 be able to在表示“能力”时意思相同,但在用法上有区别。

    (1)can表示主观能力,be able to表示客观能力。

I can swim, but I am not able to swim now because there is not any river here.

我会游泳,但由于这里没有河,我不能游泳。

    (2)can只有现在式和过去式,而 be able to可用于各种时态。

    (3)be  able to可用于动词不定式和动名词结构中,can不能。如:

    I would like to be able to learn, but I’m too old. 我想能够学习,但我太老了。

    The patient regrets not being able to take the doctor’s advice. 病人后悔没有听从医生的建议。

    (4)be able to可和情态动词连用,can不能。如:

    When one learns a foreign language, one must be able to use the foreign language, forgetting all about his own.

当一个人学外语的时候,他应该在忘记自己本国语的情况下能够运用外语。

16、be prepared

a)         准备,打算。 

He is not prepared to help me. 他没打算帮我。

b)        对…有准备

A  + to

You must be prepared to what he will say. 对他将说什么你该有个准备。

B  + for

Li Ming is not prepared for the question. 对这个问题李明没做准备。

17、keep保持;继续(处于某种状态)(link-v)

(1)      adj.         

You must keep calm. 你应该保持镇定。

   I wish those children would keep quite. 我希望这些孩子能保持安静。

(2)      prep. Phr     

He is keeping in good health. 他身体很好。

You must keep inside the house during the cold weather. 天冷的时候你应该呆在家里。

(3)      adv.         

Danger, keep out. 危险,请勿靠近!

As long as you can keep away from them, you are safe. 只要你远离他们,你就是安全的。

18、man,  mankind,  being,  human being,  people  和 person 人;人类

man 指人类时表示总称,多用单数,不加冠词。

mankind 人类。表总称,为不可数名词。

being,  human being 指单个的人;区别于动物。

people 人们;人民。集合名词,无复数形式。

person 指一个个的人。为可数名词。

19、My mind began to wander.

   wander

   (1) 游荡;漫游

     They wandered in Europe for three months. 他们在欧洲逛荡了几个月。

     His eyes wandered round the full house. 他的环视了整个房间。

   (2) 迷路乱走

     Don’t wander off the road into the forest. 别离开大路走到树林里去。

     The dog wandered off and got lost. 那只狗乱跑跑丢了。

   (3) 蜿蜒曲折

     The river wanders through some very beautiful country.

     河流蜿蜒曲折穿过美丽的想乡村。

     The little stream wanders through the woods. 小溪蜿蜒曲折从树林流过。

   (4) 胡想;说胡话

     Don’t let your thought wander in class. 上课时别胡思乱想。

     His mind wandered back to his college days. 他的思绪回到了他的大学时代。

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