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杨吉辉,西安市育才中学高级英语教师,民进会员。《中学英语教学参考》编辑部特邀编委,陕西师范大学外语学院教育硕士导师,论文评审及答辩委员会委员,陕西省首批网上支教教师。参与编写出版《 3+x 高考英语突破》《高中会考单元检测》《胜券在握》《胜券》《榜上有名2010陕西省高考新题型核心突破》《榜上有名语法分册》《榜上有名2011年高考一轮复习》《高考密码2012陕西一轮总复习》等 10 余部教辅资料。愿意为中学生朋友答疑解惑。

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高中英语必修5第五单元重点、难点  

2011-10-22 22:24:08|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit Five  First Aid

1、aid

   (1) 辅助工具;有助的东西

   A dictionary is an important aid in learning a new language.

   字典是学习新语言的重要工具。

   (2) 帮助;援助

   With the aid of a neighbor, he managed to put out the fire.在邻居的帮助下,他把火扑灭了。

   (3) vt.帮助  aid sb to do sth / in doing sth

      I aided her to work out the problem. 我帮助她解出了那道题。

   aid help, assist, “帮助”的区别

help 语气较随便。满足被帮者的迫切需要、麻烦或危险,自己没有办法。帮助者往往出于好意、同情或仁慈。

assist 意为辅助。强调辅助者所起的作用,所进行的工作往往是次要的;辅助者本身也处于从属地位。

aid 意为援助。比help正式。暗含被帮一方是弱者之意。

My mother is deaf so she has to use a hearing aid.

The young nurse was very nervous when she assisted in her first operation.

2、The skin is an essential part of your body and its largest organ.(p33)

皮肤是身体必不可少的部分,也是身体的最大器官。

关键透析

essential  adj. 必要的,基本的,本质的

Hard work is essential to success. 成功必须努力工作。

It is essential to know all the facts. 了解所有的事实是必要的。

联想拓展

be essential for/to…  对……来说是必要的

Water is essential to the growth of crops. 水对庄稼生长是必要的。

It is essential that从句    ……是必要的

It is essential that you study English well. 你有必要把英语学好。

It is essential for sb to do … 做某事对某人来讲是必要的

It is essential for the old to save some money. 老年人存点钱是必要的。

特别提示

在It is essential that从句结构中,It为形式主语,that引导主语从句,从句中谓语动词为”should +do”,should可以省略,这是高考考查的热点之一。

3、it keeps you warm or cool. (p33) 它可以保暖或御寒。

keep + O + OC

   用法归纳:

    (1) keep + O + 形容词

     Coat can keep you warm in winter.  冬天大衣可以保暖。

    (2) keep + O + 现在分词

    Oil keeps cars running. 油能使汽车运行。

    (3) keep + O + 过去分词

    Keep the door closed. Don’t open it. 让门关着,别打开。

    (4) keep + O + 副词

    Coat can keep cold out in winter. 冬天大衣可以御寒。

    (5) keep + O +介词短语

    Exercise keeps people in good health. 锻炼能使人身体健康。

4、You can get burned by a variety of things.(p34) 你可能由于各种原因而烧伤。

   variety n.

   (1) 变换花样;不单调;多种多样

   Life at school has plenty of variety. 学校生活多彩多样。

   A job that lacks variety soon becomes tiresome. 一个单调的工作很快就会令人厌烦的。

   (2) 品种

   Apple is a well-known variety. 苹果是名牌。

   There are several varieties of red roses. 红玫瑰有好几个品种。

   联想扩展:

   a variety of  各种各样的;多种多样的

   This shop has a variety of goods. 这个商店有各种各样的货物。

   Plastics are made in a variety of forms. 塑料被制成各种形状。

5、These affect only the top layer of the skin.(p34) 这只损伤皮层的最上层。

   affect vt.

   用法归纳:

  (1)影响

   The amount of rain affects the growth of crops. 雨量影响庄稼的生长。

   The entire country was affected by drought. 整个国家受到干旱影响。

  (2)引起感情波动

   The news did not affect her at all. 那个消息对她没任何影响。

   All the people in the room were affected to tears. 房子里所有的人都哭了。

  (3)感染

   One of my lungs has been affected so I cough. 我的一个肺感染了所以我咳嗽。

   His wound has become affected. 他的上口感染了。

  (4)假装;佯装

   He affected illness so that need not go to work. 他装病就不需要上班了。

   She affected not to see me. 她装作没看到我。

6、Take off other clothing and jewelry near the burn.(p34) 靠近烧伤面的其他衣物和首饰也都要拿掉。

take off 

用法归纳

(1)脱下

I can't take my boots off, they're so tight!  靴子太紧了, 我脱不下来!

Please take off your coat, it’s warm here. 把大衣脱下来,这里很暖和。

(2)(飞机)起飞

It's exciting to feel the plane taking off. 感觉到飞机起飞令人兴奋。

My plane takes off at seven in the evening. 我乘坐的飞机晚上七点起飞。

(3)离开,离去

I'll take off now, and see you later. 我现在就要走了,回头见。

The got into the car and took off for the airport. 他们上车匆匆离开去机场。

(4)拿掉,取下

I can't take the lid off, it's stuck! 这盖子卡住了, 我拿不下来。

Why doesn’t the government take the tax off low income? 政府为什么不把低收入的所得税去掉。

  (5)休假;歇工

   Everyone takes the Spring Festival off. 每个人都休年假。

   Bill was tired out so he took a day off. 比尔太累了,所以他修了一天假。

联想拓展

take away 拿走  take back 带回,归还  take up 举起;占(时间、空间)  take down 降下;拆毁

take in 吸收  take out 除去  take on 呈现   take over 接管

7、For second degree burns, keep cloths cool by putting them back in a basin of cold water, squeezing them out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so bad. (p34) 对于二度烧伤,要保持湿布清凉,需要把湿布放回到冷水盆里,拧出水后再放到烧伤面上,这样要反反复复做一个小时左右,直到不太痛为止。

  squeeze v.

  用法归纳

  (1)挤;压;拧;塞

   The housewife squeezed the last bit from the toothpaste tube.

家庭主妇从牙膏管里把最后一点挤出来。

I don’t want to squeeze my feet into the small shoes. 我不想把我的脚塞进小鞋里。

  (2)挤出;榨取

   Can you squeeze any more juice from the lemon? 你还能从那个柠檬榨出汁吗?

   They only want to squeeze more profits. 他们只是想榨出更多利润。

   联想扩展

   (1) squeeze from 从身上榨取

   We have to squeeze an answer from him. 我们不得不从他那里榨一个答案。

  (2)squeeze out 挤出

   Maybe you can still squeeze out a few drops from the dry lemon.

也许你还能从那个干柠檬榨出几滴汁来。

  (3)squeeze through 挤着通过

   Turn your shoulders round the other way and you’ll manage to squeeze through.

   把肩膀侧过来你就能挤过去。

8、Hold the bandage in place with tape.(p35) 用胶布把绷带固定。

   in place

  (1)放在应该放的地方

   I like everything in place at home. 我喜欢家里一切井井有条。

   The books were in place on the shelves. 书都整齐摆放在书架上。

  (2)适当的

   Your remark is not in place here. 你的话在这里不恰当。

   An expression of thanks to our host would be in place. 对主人表示感谢是应该的。

9、Seventeen-year-old teenager, John Jonson , was honored at the Lifesaver Awards last night in River town for giving lifesaving first aid on his neighbor after a shocking knife attack.

里弗镇的17岁青年约翰詹森昨晚在救生员颁奖大会上领奖,因为在一次骇人听闻的持刀杀人案件发生后,他给他的邻居实施了紧急抢救。

honor n. 荣誉,头衔v. 尊敬,信守承诺

用法归纳

(1)honor sb with/by sth.   因某事尊敬某人

He will honor us with a visit.为了表示尊敬他将来拜访我们。

2)be/feel honored by/with sth.      因某事感到荣幸

I feel highly honored by the kind things you say about me. 你说了那么多我的好话,我感到很荣幸。

(3)be/feel honored that从句        因……感到荣幸

I am honored that you should notice me. 你能注意到我我很荣幸。
(4)be/feel honored (to do sth)       因做某事而荣幸

I am honored to stand here to speak to you. 我很荣幸能站在这里讲话。

(5)in honor of sb=in sb’s honor     纪念……;向……表示敬意

It is only a dance in honor of my birthday. 这只是纪念我生日的一个舞会。

We held the meeting in honor of his success.我们举行这个会议庆祝他的成功。

联想扩展

in memory of…纪念某人   in praise of…表扬;赞扬   in search of 寻找   in face of 面对 in need of 需要   in defense of 保卫   in charge of 负责   in possession of 拥有  in terms of 至于;关于 

in case of 要是…   in favor of 同意;赞同

10、It was John’s quick action and knowledge of first aid that saved Ms’ Slade’s life.

正是约翰快捷的动作和急救知识拯救了斯莱德女士的生命。

此举为强调结构,强调了主语John’s quick action and knowledge of first aid意为 “正是约翰快捷的动作和急救知识”。

用法归纳

(1)强调句型的基本结构是“It+be+被强调成分+that (who)…”。如:

He bought the book in this shop yesterday.

→It was he that bought the book in this shop yesterday. (强调主语he)

→It was the book that he bought in this shop yesterday. (强调宾语the book)

→It was in this shop that he bought the book yesterday. (强调地点状语in this shop)

(2) 强调句型的陈述句形式和一般疑问句形式:Jim told us the news.(非强调句)

→It was Jim that told us the news.(强调句型的陈述句形式)

→Was it Jim that told us the news?(强调句型的一般疑问句形式)

→Who was it that told us the news?(强调句型的特殊疑问句形式)

(3)not…until 句式的强调结构:基本形式为It is (was) not until…that…。

He didn't come until his wife left. 他妻子走了之后他才来。

→It was not until his wife left that he came. 他妻子走了之后他才来。

11、John used these to treat the most severe injuries to Ms. Slade’s hands.(p38)

   约翰用这些治疗斯莱德夫人受伤最严重的烧伤。

   treat v.

   用法归纳

  (1)对待

   Don’t treat me as a child. 别把我当孩子一样对待。

   They treated me with respect. 他们对我很尊敬。

  (2)治疗

   Are you able to treat this disease? 你们能治这种病吗?

   It is difficult to treat a person with cancer. 得癌症的人很难治疗。

  (3)讨论;论述

   She treats this subject fully in her book. 他在书中全面论述了这个主题。

   The book treats the problems of economic development. 这本书论述了经济发展的有关问题。

   联想扩展

  (1)treat as 看作;当作

   The police treat his death as a case of murder. 警察把他的死看作是谋杀。

  (2)treat of 论述;讨论

   The book treats of the history of China. 这本书论述了中国历史。

  (3)treat …to 招待;请客

   I will treat you to an ice cream. 我请你吃冰激淋。

  (4)treat with 和…谈判; 和…商谈

   We can’t treat with a person whose faith is bad. 我们不和信誉不好的人谈判。

12、He slowed the bleeding by applying pressure to the wounds until the police and ambulance arrived.

   他按压住伤口让血流放慢直到警察和救护车到来。

   apply v.

   用法归纳

  (1)申请

   I have applied for a passport. 我申请护照了。

   He has applied for a further loan to the bank. 他又向银行申请贷款。

  (2)应用;运用

   Would you apply that rule to everyone? 你要把那个规定用于所有人?

   The term is rarely applied to animals. 这个术语很少用于动物。

  (3)适用

   The rules of safe drive apply to everyone. 安全驾驶的规定适用于每个人。

   The rule doesn’t apply in this case. 这条规定不适用这个案子。

  (4)敷;贴;涂

   Please apply some medicine to his wound. 请给他伤口贴点药。

   Apply the honey on the bread. 把蜂蜜涂在面包上。

13、It shows that a knowledge of first aid can make a real difference.

这说明急救知识的确能发挥重要作用。

make a (no, some…) difference 起作用 / 有影响 /没影响

I admit that makes a difference. 我承认那起作用。

It won’t make any difference to him. 那对他没用。

14、count

   (1) 数数

      Don’t count chickens before they are hatched.

   (2) 把…算在内

      Ten people are on the trip if you count the children.如果你把小孩算在内,共有十人旅行。

   (3) 重要;有价值

      Every minute counts.每一分钟都很重要。

      What counts to them is money. 对他们最有价值的就是钱。

   (4) 认为;看作  count + O +OC (n / adj / v-ed)

      He counted himself a lucky man. 他认为自己是个幸运的人。

      We counted the day well spent. 我们认为那天花的值。

      联想扩展

      count against 对…不利   count as算作是    count in 把…算进去    count off报数

      count on指望;依靠    count out数出    count up加起来

15、case

in case of 要是…   in this / that case    in any case 无论如何    in no case 无论什么情况都不  in the case of sb  就某人情况讲   in one’s case就某人情况讲  It’s not the case 不是真的If it’s / that’s the case 如果是真的   as is (often) the case (with sb) 这(对某人来讲)   是常事

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